Describes the inherent nature and enduring principles of naval forces.
Naval vessels that existed at the inception of the Navy
- Ships-of-the-Line: The battleships of the sailing days. These ships were the largest of all sailing warships. These battleships carried 64 to 100 guns of various sizes.
- Frigates: The cruisers of the 18th century. These cruisers were next in size, usually smaller than average ships-of-the-line and usually faster. They carried 28 to 44 guns.
- Sloops-of-War: The small sailing warships. These ships carried 10 to 20 guns.
Conditions that led to the formation of the U.S. Navy
The areas of our country that became the 13 original states were colonies of England in the mid-1700's. The king of England allowed the colonies to trade only with England. Problems arose between the colonists and England as the years passed.
English Parliament passed several tax laws that affected the colonists in a problem known as "taxation without representation". The colonists formed Committees of Correspondence to communicate the problems to England. They convened a Continental Congress to discuss these problems. This first congress met in 5 September 1774. At the meeting, the Congress produced a statement of rights it believed England should grant to the colonists. Then in October of 1774 the statement of rights was presented to the king. A second Continental Congress convened on 10 May 1775. The colonists appointed George Washington as Commander in Chief of the Continental American army on 15 June 1775. The Continental Congress felt forced to act as the provisional government for the colonies. They issued money, established a postal service, and created a Continental navy. The U.S. Navy has its birth on 13 October 1775. On this date the Second Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels. The first commander in chief was Esek Hopkins, who put the first squadron of the Continental Navy to sea in February 1776.
Navy and Marine Corps support national policies
Naval forces have been organized for fighting at sea or from the sea for more than two thousand years. The qualities that characterize most modern naval forces as political instruments in support of national policies are the same as those that define the essence of our naval Services today. These qualities are readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility. They permit naval forces to be expeditionary (being able to establish and maintain a forward-based, stabilizing presence around the world). Naval expeditionary operations are offensive in nature, mounted by highly trained and well-equipped integrated task forces of the Navy and Marine Corps, organized to accomplish specific objectives. Naval expeditionary forces draw upon their readiness, flexibility, self-sustainability, and mobility to provide the National Command Authorities the tools they need to safeguard such vital national interests as the continued availability of oil from world producers and maintenance of political and economic stability around the globe. Through these qualities, naval forces reassure allies and friends, deter aggressors, and influence uncommitted and unstable regimes.
Three levels of war
The concept of "levels of war" can help us visualize the relative contribution of military objectives toward achieving overall national goals and offer us a way to place in perspective the causes and effects of our specific objectives, planning, and actions. There are three levels: tactical, operational, and strategic - each increasingly broader in scope. Although the levels do not have precise boundaries, in general we can say that the tactical level involves the details of individual engagements; the operational level concerns forces collectively in a theater; and the strategic level focuses on supporting national goals.
World War II, for example, a strategic-level and global war, included operational-level combat in the Pacific theater consisting primarily of U.S. led maritime, air, and supporting allied land campaigns. Within each specific campaign were a series of important and often decisive battles. At the tactical level, each contributed to the achievement of that campaign's objectives. The culmination of these campaign objectives resulted in overall victory in the Pacific theater.
Points the way for intelligence support in meeting the requirements of both regional conflicts and operations other than war.
Develops doctrine to reaffirm the foundation of U.S. Navy and Marine Corps expeditionary maritime traditions.
When military action is one of the potential responses to a situation threatening U.S. interests, a plan is prepared using either the joint deliberate-planning process or crisis-action procedures10. Although military flexibility demands a capability to conduct short-notice crisis planning when necessary, U.S. military strength is best enhanced by deliberate peacetime analysis, planning, and exercises. An operation plan is a commander's complete description of a concept of operation. It is based on the commander's preparation of the battlespace,11 a formal evaluation, supported by intelligence, that integrates enemy doctrine with such factors as physical and environmental conditions. From this evaluation, the commander identifies the forces and support needed to execute the plan within a theater of operations. Naval forces operation plans are integrated into the complete inventory available to the Joint Force Commander. For execution, plans become operation orders. Operation plans include: the theater strategy or general concept and the organizational relationships; the logistics plan shows ways the force will be supported; and the deployment plan sequences the movement of the force and its logistical support into the theater. Elements of planning that produce a concept of operations include the commander's estimate, deciding possible courses of action, preparation of the mission statement and its execution strategy, situation analysis, and formulation of the commander's intent. These elements are applicable up, down, and across chains of command.
Addresses the full range of logistical capabilities that are essential in the support of naval forces. Sustained naval and joint operations are made possible by a logistic support system that has two major components: fleet- based sustainment assets and strategic sustainment assets. Fleet-based sustainment assets include replenishment ships of the combat logistics force providing direct fleet support, combat service support units, mobile repair facilities, and advanced logistic support hubs. Strategic sustainment is provided by air and sea assets that are shared by all Services. Successful global response to contingencies depends upon our ability to project and sustain U.S. forces in all theaters of operations. Integrated support resources in the form of fleet-based sustainment assets and strategic assets provide naval expeditionary forces and joint and multinational forces the ability to operate in peacetime and in war wherever and whenever our national interests demand. Our ability to move and sustain forces at great distances from our shores is critical to the forward presence component of our military strategy.
Seven principles of Naval Logistics
- Responsiveness: Providing the right support at the right time, at the right place. This is the most important principle of logistics. Ensuring that adequate logistics resources are responsive to operational needs should be the focus of logistic planning. Such planning requires clear guidance from the commander to his planners; also, it requires clear communication between operational commanders and those who are responsible for providing logistic support. The operational commander's concept of operations must be thoroughly familiar to the supporting elements—to ensure responsive, integrated support. Responsiveness is a product of logistic discipline, as well. Commanders and logisticians who consistently overestimate their requirements— in quantity and priority— risk slowing the system’s ability to respond.
- Simplicity: Avoiding unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning, and conducting logistic operations. Providing logistics support never is simple, but the logistics plans that utilize the basic standard support systems usually have the best chance for success. Mission-oriented logistics support concepts and standardized procedures reduce confusion. The operational commander must simplify the logistic task by communicating clear priorities, and forecasting needs based on current and accurate usage data.
- Flexibility: Adapting logistics support to changing conditions. Logistics must be flexible enough to support changing missions, evolving concepts of operations, and the dynamic situations that characterize naval operations. A thorough understanding of the commanders intent enables logistic planners to support the fluid requirements of naval operations. In striving for flexibility, the logistic commander considers such factors as alternative planning, anticipation, the use of reserve assets, and redundancy. The task-organization of combat service support units is an example of flexible tailoring of logistic support resources to meet anticipated operational requirements.
- Economy: Employing logistic support assets effectively. Accomplishing the mission requires the economical use of logistic support resources. Logistic assets are allocated on the basis of availability and the commanders objectives. Effective employment further the operational commander to decide which resources must be committed immediately and which should be kept in reserve. Additionally, the commander may need to allocate limited resources to support conflicting and multiple requirements. Prudent use of limited logistics resources ensures that support is available where and when it is most needed. Without economy, operational flexibility becomes comprised.
- Attainability: Acquiring the minimum essential logistic support begin combat operations. Risk is defined as the difference between the commanders desired level of support and the absolute minimum needed to satisfy mission requirements. The commander must determine the minimum essential requirements and ensure that adequate logistic support levels have been attained before initiating combat operations. In some cases time will permit building up support levels beyond minimum essential requirements. During Operation Desert Shield, for example, the coalition retained the operational initiative and delayed the commencement of combat operations until a six-month supply of material was in theater and available to the operating forces. In this case, the commander was able to attain the level needed to satisfy mission requirements.
- Sustainability: Providing logistic support for the duration of the operation. Sustaining the logistic needs of committed forces in a campaign of uncertain duration is the greatest challenge to the logistician. Every means must be taken to maintain minimum essential material levels at all times. This requires effective support planning that incorporates economy, responsiveness and flexibility. Sustainability also is influenced by our ability to maintain and protect the ships and aircraft that move material to and from the operational theater.
- Survivability: Ensuring that the logistic infrastructure prevails in spite of degradation and damage. Logistic support units and installations, lines of communication, transportation nodes and industrial centers are high-value targets that must be protected by both active and passive measures. For example—since we may not always have the luxury of conducting replenishment in protected rearward areas.
Examines force planning and the relationship between our capabilities and operational planning in the joint and multinational environment.
Naval Command and Control
Provides the basic concepts to fulfill the information needs of commanders, forces, and weapon systems.