Definitions of some common terminology used in TKDTutelage lessons.
Leading. The arm, leg, or side of the body that is nearest to the opponent.
Trailing. The arm, leg, or side of the body that is farthest from the opponent.
Inner Forearm. The thumb side of the forearm.
Outer Forearm. The little finger side of the forearm.
For attacking and blocking purposes, the body is divided into three sections:
- High (top of shoulders and head)
- Middle (below shoulders to abdomen)
- Low (below abdomen)
Point of Focus
The point of focus is an imaginary point in space where an attack or block ends its motion. The power of a technique peaks at this point. Impact at any point before the point of focus will have less power. If point of focus is too far behind the target, the impact power of the technique will be changed into a pushing motion. This point may be:
- Just in front of the surface of target, as with no-contact sparring.
- On the surface of target, as with light-contact sparring.
- At some point beneath the surface of target, as with full-contact sparring or breaking.
A chamber is the cocking of an arm or leg so it may achieve a full range of movement in an attack or block, and thus helping it achieve its maximum power.
- Arms are usually chambered to a position about 180 degrees opposite their ending position. In general, arms are chambered as follows:
- Low techniques are chambered in high section, over non-blocking arm. Middle techniques are chambered in middle section, under non-blocking arm. High techniques are chambered in low section and below non-blocking arm.
- Legs are chambered to various positions depending on the technique.
- A full-range chamber is used while learning new techniques (to help students learn the motion) and when performing patterns (for aesthetics) . When sparring, the chamber is minimized or eliminated (to maximize quickness and so as not to telegraph a movement to opponent).
Hand shape is the position the hand is held in during a technique, such as in a knife hand or hammer fist shape.
- Just as with the chamber, pre-shaping of the hand is used when learning new techniques and when performing patterns. However, when sparring, pre-shaping of the hand is eliminated to maximize quickness and so as not to telegraph a movement to opponent.
- When sparring, all hand attacks or blocks start with hands held in tight fists.
- Hand shape is changed, as is necessary, just as hand begins it movement toward the point of focus. For example, if planning a knife hand attack, do not open hand into a knife hand shape before the hand starts moving toward the target.
Hand-foot timing occurs when the arm performing a technique is timed to reach its point of focus just as the stepping foot touches the floor.
- This ensures that body mass is applied to the technique at just the right moment.
- A general rule, keep the arm chambered until the instant the stepping foot touches the floor. Since the arm moves so quickly, it will reach its point of focus just as the body weight shifts to the stepping foot.
The snapping and twisting of the hand into a hand attack or block.
- A microsecond before a hand technique reached its point of focus, the arm quickly twists the hand from its chambered position into its striking position.
- This applies all the power in the muscles of the arm to the technique and tenses the arm for the impact.
The snapping and twisting of the hips into a hand or foot attack.
- Hips are chambered and then they snap over a microsecond before a technique reaches its point of focus.
- This applies body mass to the technique to help it achieve maximum power.