In stance descriptions:
- All stances are shown as left stances unless otherwise indicated.
- Opponent is located toward top of the page so the guarding position of the hands is toward that direction.
In each stance description, a stance diagram is displayed:
- Black line square is an imaginary square on the floor with sides equal to 1 & 1/2 shoulder widths.
- Blue lines are imaginary lines that are 1/2 a shoulder width apart.
- Blue footprints show the foot positions.
- Red dot shows the position of the body's center of mass above the floor.
All stances are performed with the hands and arms being held in a basic guard position:
- Hands in fists held just below cheekbones.
- Palms toward face.
- Forearms almost vertical.