Student intelligence. There are conflicting results as to the relationship between IQ and cheating. Most of the research indicates a strong negative correlation but some evidence suggests that the relationship depends on the capability of the student to assess the degree of risk involved in cheating at a particular place and time.
Personality characteristics of students. Students with a high need for approval cheat more often and students concerned about negative evaluations cheat even more often. Male students self-report cheating more than female students do, but studies of actual cheating have not supported this.
Lack of understanding and consensus among students as to what constitutes cheating. The more that students perceive a particular cheating behavior as occurring, the less likely they will view it as academic dishonestly.
The level of moral judgment and will that is expressed by students. In theory, students who think at a more sophisticated level of moral reasoning are less likely to cheat because it is difficult for them to justify such behavior on rational moral grounds. However, research on the influence of moral reasoning on conduct and will is inconclusive.