The Japanese pronunciation is "kuh-rah-tay." The common pronunciation in the United States is "kuh-rot-ee."
Karate was originally called te, meaning "hand." Later, the name karate was adopted, which means "empty hand" or "Chinese hand" (depending upon which characters are used to write the word). The word karate is formed by two characters, the first one is kara (empty) and the other is te (hand). Kara may be explained several ways. One explanation is that through the practice of karate, self-defense methods are learned, where no weapons are used, other than hands, feet, or other parts of the body. Another explanation of kara, as explained by Master Gichin Funakoshi, is, "Just as it is the clear mirror that reflects without distortion, or the quiet valley that echoes a sound, so must one who would study Karate-do purge himself of selfish and evil thoughts, for only with a clear mind and conscience can he understand that which he receives. This is another meaning of the element kara in Karate-do." Another explanation given by Funakoshi is that of always striving to be inwardly humble and outwardly gentle. Finally, another explanation of kara by Funakoshi also talks about the elemental form of the universe, which is emptiness (kara, ku), "and thus, emptiness is form itself. The kara of Karate-do has this meaning." It is clear from these explanations that karate is much more than mere self-defense techniques.
Toward the end of the 19th century, Gichin Funakoshi trained with various Karate masters, and then he devised his own system, which he named Shotokan. He spread the style to the Japanese mainland and eventually to the West. Master Funakoshi, inspired by traditional martial arts from the main Japanese islands (such as Kyudo, Kendo, and Judo) modified karate, which until that moment could have been called Karate-jutsu (a fighting art), and emphasized its philosophical aspects by combining karate techniques with traditional Budo (the martial way). The word Budo is formed by two Chinese characters. "bu" is formed by two symbols, a symbol that means to stop is drawn inside another symbol of two weapons, two crossed halberds. Thus, "bu" means to stop conflict. As stated before, "do" means a way or a life philosophy. In Master Funakoshi's own words, "Since karate is a Budo, this meaning should be deeply considered, and the fists should not be used heedlessly."
Today, it is common to find both "traditional" and "sport" styles of karate. Traditional styles being the formal Okinawan styles, and sport styles being those involved mostly in tournament competition. Karate is based upon powerful linear kicks and punches. It is considered a "hard" martial art since its blocks and attacks are direct and forceful. Many different styles fall under the karate banner. All the styles include hard style kicks, punches, and blocks, but some emphasize linear movements, while others emphasize circular movements. In virtually every style, kata (patterns) practice and kumite (sparring) play an important role in training.
- Traditional. Traditional is similar to the original version with its close relationship to karate.
- ITF. The International Taekwondo Federation version that begin as traditional but was modified over the years by its founder, General Choi.
- WTF. World Taekwondo Federation olympic version that is more of a sport than a martial art.
Aikido was founded by Morihei Uyeshiba (1883-1969) in 1942. Prior to this time, Ueshiba called his art "Aikibudo" or "Aikinomichi." Aikido means "ai" to meet, "ki" spirit, "do" way. Uyeshiba, also known as OSensei, was heavily influenced by the principles and techniques of Daito-ryu AikiJujutsu, several styles of Japanese fencing (Kenjutsu), spearfighting (Yarijutsu), and by the so-called "new religion" of Omotokyo. Largely because of his deep interest in Omotokyo, Ueshiba came to see his Aikido as rooted less in techniques for achieving physical domination over others than in attempting to cultivate a "spirit of loving protection for all things." The extent to which Ueshiba's religious and philosophical convictions influenced the direction of technical developments and changes within the corpus of Aikido techniques is not known, but many Aikido practitioners believe that perfect mastery of Aikido would allow one to defend against an attacker without causing serious or permanent injury.
Aikido is a "soft" Japanese martial art that emphasizes evasion and neutralizing forceful attacks by circular/spiral redirection of their force. In some variations of Aikido, practitioners attempt to control the attacker's momentum and redirect it into a throw or takedown. In other variations, practice consists of strictly joint locks and throws. Aikido practitioners attempt to be "in tune" with their opponents so they may sense the opponent's intentions and take advantage of the opponent's actions. Many of Aikido's movements are based upon the movements used while using a Samurai sword.
The primary strategies of Aikido are: moving into a position off the line of attack, seizing control of the attacker's balance by means of leverage and timing, and applying a throw, pin, or other sort of immobilization (such as a wrist/arm lock). Strikes are sometimes used, but they are used mostly as a distraction. A strike "atemi" is delivered to provoke a reaction from the opponent, to create an opening for the use of a throw, pin, or other immobilization.
Aikido is popular in Japan because police frequently learn it so they may subdue suspects without injuring them. Contrary to the way it is portrayed in the popular movies of film star Steven Seagal, Aikido has a reputation as a "nonviolent" martial art.
Some Aikido schools train with weapons, such as the jo (a staff between 4 or 5 feet in length), the bokken (a wooden sword), and the tanto (a wooden knife). These weapons are used to teach defenses against armed attacks, and to illustrate principles of Aikido movement, distancing, and timing.
A competitive variant of Aikido (tomiki Aikido, founded by Kenji Tomiki) holds structured competitions where opponents attempt to score points by stabbing with a rubber knife, or by executing Aikido techniques in response to attacks with the knife. However, most variants of Aikido do not hold competitions, matches, or sparring. Instead, techniques are practiced in cooperation with a partner who steadily increases the speed, power, and variety of attacks in accordance with the abilities of the participants. Participants take turns being attacker and defender, usually performing pre-arranged attacks and defenses at the lower levels, gradually working up to full-speed freestyle attacks and defenses.
There are several major variants of Aikido. The root variant is "aikikai", founded by Morihei Ueshiba, and now headed by his grandson, Moriteru Ueshiba. Several organizations in the United States are affiliated with aikikai, including the United States Aikido Federation, the Aikido Association of America, and Aikido Schools of Ueshiba. Other major variants include: the Ki Society (founded by Koichi Tohei), Yoshinkan Aikid (founded by Gozo Shioda), and the Kokikai organization (headed by Shuji Maruyama).
Aikijutsu (harmony art) was founded during the Kamakura period (1185-1446) as an extension of Kenjitsu and was later refined by Miyamoto no Yoshimitsu. Aiki means "meeting of the ki." When opponents meet, the one with the stronger ki will prevail. It uses throwing, holding, and locking with lots of circular/redirecting techniques. It is similar to Aikido but without the philosophies of Morihei Uyeshiba.
American Freestyle Karate (United States)
American freestyle (named by Dan Anderson) is not really a style, it more of method of non-Oriental training. It stresses training to capitalize on your own specific skills and capabilities rather than training to force yourself to conform to some preconceived idea of what a technique should be.
American Kempo (United States)
American Kempo (or Kenpo) (American fist law) is an eclectic art developed by Hawaiian Ed Parker. The art combines the Kara-ho Kempo karate that Parker learned from William Chow, with influences from Chinese, Japanese Kosho-tyu Kenpo, Hawaiian, and Western martial art sources. Parker added many labels to concepts from these arts that originally had no labels. It blends circular motions and evasive movements with linear kicks and punches. It is oriented toward "street" self-defense. The system allows "artistic interpretation" and many American offshoots have evolved from it.
Note: In the Japanese language, the consonants "n" and "m" have the same symbol, thus the English spelling can be rendered either "Kempo" or "Kenpo". There are several arts in this family, but the spelling is not significant in distinguishing between them.
Animal Styles (China)
Some Kung-fu styles are based on the way an animal defends itself. Here is a partial list of some animal styles. Some animals are styles (sub-sets of a system), and others are complete systems. Some animals have different personalities (sub-sets of the style).
- Bear. A mauling grappling, powerful, and overpowering style.
- Boar. Uses rushing and butting, and elbows and knees.
- Bull. Uses charging and tackling.
- Cobra. Strikes vital points, usually upper body.
- Crane. The crane is a graceful beautiful bird, whose beauty makes it look weak and helpless. However, it uses its balance and grace against attackers. It is good at fighting from a distance, not letting the opponent get too close, and then using accuracy to hit with precision hand techniques.
- Deer. Is fleet and agile.
- Dragon. The dragon rides the wind, flies, swoops, leaps, and slashes. Style is known for twirling and spinning motions, using the momentum and whipping motion of the spin against the opponent. It uses movements and strikes from many other animals, and is difficult to predict.
- Eagle. Uses the "eagle claw," a unique attack, usually to soft targets (eyes, throat, or groin).
- Eagle Claw. A system similar to Jujutsu. Uses trapping of incoming strikes, take downs, and locking the opponent. This is a long fist style (long range). Most strikes are aimed at pressure points.
- Leopard. Uses speed and power. The leopard is quick and leaps. This style likes to lunge with attacks, and then get clear before a counterattack. It has a lot of in-out attacks using quick body momentum to add power.
- Snow Leopard. A variant of the leopard. The snow leopard walks on snow all day, so its paws are stiff. This style likes to lunge in like the leopard, but it uses forearms, elbows, and knees to strike (to protect its paws).
- Monkey. This style is deceptive and dangerous. It confuses the opponent using very low stances and movements that do not look feasible. Users put on a showy display to confuse the opponent and then strike with something simple (or visa-versa). Users will roll to absorb a hit or to get inside a guard. There are 5 sub-styles:
- Drunken Monkey. Adds deceptive movements that give the practitioner the appearance of being intoxicated. It is the most difficult of the monkey styles to master.
- Lost Monkey. Adds constant movement (changing footwork and direction constantly).
- Standing Monkey. Uses more long range fighting, more conventional stances, and less rolling (better for taller people).
- Stone Monkey. This practitioner will absorb strikes and then return them.
- Wooden Monkey. Most aggressive of the monkey styles. Users will literally jump on an opponent.
- Panther. Circling, lunging, and ripping.
- Praying Mantis. A system that likes to trap oncoming strikes, similar to a mantis, while simultaneously striking with the other hand or foot. Uses many fast hand strikes. A large person in this style is not afraid to use his or her body (butting, hipping, etc.) The smaller person will rely more on speed.
- Eight Steps Praying Mantis. Uses footwork for more close-range fighting.
- Northern Praying Mantis. Uses more kicks and more long-range fighting.
- Seven Star Praying Mantis. Always moving and changing direction to break
- Praying Mantis (Southern). This system is unrelated to a Praying Mantis, and bears no resemblance to the insect. This is a close-range, short-hand system that uses quick aggressive attacks. This style has no real blocks, it avoids (or absorbs) the first punch and immediately counter attacks with a machine gun barrage of tight punches and low kicks (often simultaneous) with no changing of footwork, just an all out blitz. They are known for their 1-inch punch, phoenix strike, and palm strikes.
- Python. Uses grappling, crushing, locks, and holds with chokes.
- Scorpion. Uses grabs at pressure points or soft targets.
- Snake. The snake is fluent and supple. It will wrap up your limbs, destroy your balance, and use poison hand techniques. It likes to get in close, use grappling, and then throw while striking many times in the process.
- Tiger. Good at close-range fighting, likes to maul and overpower opponent. A strong style suited for stockier people, to use their strength. It throws an opponent while using the opponent's momentum against him or her.
- Viper. Strikes at vital points, usually on lower body.
- White Crane. A defensive system that uses long, powerful, high kicks as well as long arm attacks. Uses the pivot of the whole body to put force behind its strikes and long-range kicks. Uses a lot of quick, ever changing footwork. Four basic fist attacks are taught:
- Chuin: straight punch
- Pow: uppercut
- Kup: circular overhead punch
- Chow: roundhouse punch
Arnis, Escrima, and Kali are all terms for the native fighting arts of the Philippines, specifically the arts that use weapons. European sword fighting, mostly Spanish, with some evidence of Italian and possibly other European countries, influenced native fighting styles when mercenaries fought (and possibly taught) there. The most popular legend concerning the Filipino arts is that Datu (Chief) Lapu Lapu killed the Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan in personal combat.
Arnis, whose name is derived from the Spanish expression "Arnis de mano (harness the hand)" is from the northern parts of Luzon Island; Escrima is from the central Philippines, such as Cebu City; and Kali is from the southern island of Mindanao. Some claim that, since Mindanao was never conquered by the Spanish to the extent that the rest of the Philippines was, Kali (the older of the three) more closely resembles the original pre-Spanish arts of the area and is more complete and covers more combative possibilities. Some claim that the word Kali is part of a modern attempt to marginalize the Spanish (and other European) influence on Filipino martial arts, and some go so far as to refer to Kali as a "Filipino-American" style. Most people tend to say that the words do not matter. Every village, and often every master, has a distinct style, so people tend to ask "do you study Illustrisimo, Caballero, or Cabales style?" Not "do you study Escrima or Kali?"
Kali is more of a "warrior's art" while Escrima and Arnis are "soldier's arts". Escrima and Arnis were developed as streamlined, simplified ways to teach people to fight the Spanish invaders. Some people say that Kali is a blade art, while Escrima and Arnis are stick arts, but this is a matter of contention. A distinctive feature of all of these Filipino arts is their use of geometry, and lines and angles of defense and attack; movements are important. The use of the hands and feet, to do two different things at the same time, requires a lot of training. Most Filipino arts, Kali in particular, stress the importance of disarming an opponent by destroying the attacking weapon.
There are many different styles of Filipino martial arts, but general categories can be drawn along the lines of range. Largo-mano styles tend to prefer staying at long distance from their opponents, and using well-timed and placed strikes to the hands of their opponents to disarm them. Corto or Serrada styles are the opposite, tending to crowd into their opponents, where the opponent will hopefully be uncomfortable and unprepared. Other styles prefer the medio, or middle range, which is between largo mano and serrada. There are also styles, such as Lameco Escrima, which address all three ranges. The name lameco even comes from these ranges; (la)rgo mano, (me)dio, and (co)rto.
The different Filipino styles typically cover some (or all) of the following areas: single stick (or long blade); double long weapon; long and short sword, daggers (such as single dagger, double dagger, and palm stick/double-end dagger), empty hands (punching, kicking, and grappling), spear/staff, long weapons (two-handed), flexible weapons (whip, sarong, etc.), throwing weapons, projectile weapons (bows and blowguns), and healing arts .
Some arts, such as Sayoc Kali, focus on the knife almost exclusively, while there are others, such as some lineages of balintawak eskrima, focus almost entirely on the single stick. This focus in certain lineages or styles may be the origin of the notion that Kali is more "complete" than Arnis or Escrima.
Filipino styles normally classify attacks not by their weapon, or their delivery style, but by the direction of their energy, for example, a strike to the head is usually analyzed in terms of "a high lateral strike." A punch to the gut is treated much the same as a straight knife thrust to that region would be. Students learn how to deal with the energy of the attack, and then apply that knowledge to the slight variations that come with different lengths and types of weapons.
Filipino arts place great emphasis on footwork, mobility, and body positioning. The same concepts (of angles of attack, deflections, traps, passes, etc.) are applied to similar situations at different ranges, making the understanding of ranges and how to bridge them very important. The Filipinos make extensive use of geometric shapes, superimposing them on a combat situation, and movement patterns, to teach fighters to use their position and their movement to best advantage. Some styles emphasize line-cutting (similar to Wing-chun), while some are very circular (similar to Aikido). Some prefer to stay at long range, while some will move inside as soon as possible.
Most Filipino arts stress the importance of disarming an opponent in combat. This is not usually done gently, or by using a complex disarm, but by "destroying" the hand holding the attacking weapon using your weapon. This is often referred to as "de-fanging the snake," since a poisonous snake that has no fangs cannot harm you.
Other sub styles include: Latosa Escrima, Serrada Escrima, Dumog, Panandiakman, Panantukan, Sikaran, Balintawak Escrima, Modern Arnis, Garimot Arnis, Inosanto/Lacoste Kali, Sayoc Kali, Doce-pares, Pekiti-tirsia Kali, and many more.
A general and inclusive term referring to the art of striking anatomically weak points. Atemi in some form was prevalent in virtually all Japanese close-range combat disciplines such as that of the sword (Kenjitsu) as well as in later unarmed systems such as Jujutsu and Judo.
Bandesh is an Indian martial art. In keeping with the Hindu belief in the sanctity of human life, it practices using weapons without killing. In Bandesh competition, the winner is the one who takes the weapon from the other.
Bando is a general term meaning "way of discipline" or "system of defense." It refers to those styles of unarmed and armed self-defense developed in Burma that employ striking, kicking, grappling and locking techniques, and throws, plus weapon techniques introduced into the U. S. by Dr. Maung Gi, a college professor in 1960 (Head of the American Bando Association). Bando is often called Burmese karate, since it comes from the southeast Asian country of Myanmar (formerly Burma). It is also known as Thaing, and may contain a subset of weapons skills called Banshei. Because of Myanmar's geographical proximity to Thailand, much of Bando's empty hand techniques resemble those of Muay-thai kickboxing. The art was also influenced by fighting arts imported from nearby China. Bando emphasizes the use of knives but it uses foot and hand strikes, throws and joint locks, along with numerous other weapon techniques.
It is an art of quick draw and cut with a sword. The art from which Iaijitsu was later derived.
The art of horsemanship practiced by Japanese professional warriors (Bushi or Samurai) for mounted warfare. It required strict control of the horse's actions on the battlefield. As part of this art, warriors developed their leg strength to enable them to maintain the proper posture for prolonged periods of swift riding and to control the horse with their legs during battle when their arms were occupied with weapons.
Bersilat "to do fighting" is a Malaysian martial art thought to have been derived from the Indonesian martial art of Pentjak-silat in the 15th century. Each school of Bersilat has two branches: Silat-pulat, which is a dance-like art used for public display, such at festivals; and Silat-buah, which is the combat version of the art. Bersilat emphasizes leg techniques but other types of empty hand combat are used. It is a secretive art that is handed down through families.
Binot is a rare Indian martial art in which an unarmed person defends against an armed opponent. Some believe it to be the oldest of this type of combat. It is very difficult to lean and dangerous to practice.
Meaning "art of the staff," it is a collective term referring to martial systems employing a bo (long staff, over five feet in length) that developed in Japan, Okinawa, China, and elsewhere. The use of the bo dates back to ancient times. In Japan, hard wood was plentiful and even the poorest person could easily arm himself. Since a wood stick is less dangerous to practice with than with a steel blade, wood weapons were used in Japanese feudal military arts schools.The bo was popular among commoners, priest, and monks (who were denied many weapons). A shorter version of the bo, called a "jo," also became widely practiced. A whole arsenal of poles, staffs, spiked staffs, and long iron clubs were developed. The bo was sometimes tipped in iron and sometimes totally covered by iron. In modern times, its practice is an inherent part of many styles of karate and Aikido.
To the traditional Samurai armed with a cherished sword, the bo was considered plebeian, a weapon of the commoners, but because of its effectiveness, it became necessary to understand its use, if for nothing other than for defensive reasons. In Japan, its study focused on techniques useful against an opponent armed with a sword or other weapon. Techniques such as blocking, parrying, striking, tripping, throwing off, off-balancing, striking, and thrusting were often combined into a single movement, the most powerful of which could break a sword or shatter a bone.
The bo has the unique advantage of having two ends, thus each successive technique with one end opens up a possible technique with the other end. The speed of movement of a trained practitioner is impressive. As a wooden weapon, it is comparably safe compared to the sword and other bladed weapons so it is often used as a substitute for actual bladed weapons during weapons practice.
The founder of one of the most effective and famous schools of Bojitsu was Muso Gonnosuke, an expert in the bo who was catapulted into prominence by his loss of a match. Using a bo in a challenge against the two-sword legend Miyamoto Musashi, Gonnosuke lost but was spared his life. Gonnsouke is said to have retreated into seclusion atop Mt. Homan where he underwent years of rigid self-discipline. He meditated, fasted, and underwent ritual purification from which he received divine inspiration. This led to development of a shorter version of the bo that allowed a quicker response time. He developed his own special techniques, while borrowing from both bo and sword techniques. He then challenged Musashi again, this time defeating the sword legend. Gonnouke named his style Shindo-Muso Ryu and developed a technical curriculum.
The use of the bo is so widespread that virtually every country has its own tradition. In Europe, the long staff was used by peasants during the middle ages. In China, the bo and other weapons were also widely practiced and often incorporated into various Kung-fu systems. Okinawan also has systems of Bojitsu.
In the Ryukyus of which Okinawa is the largest island, bo patterns are the oldest of martial arts patterns dating back to Matsu Higa, the weapons teacher of Takahara Peinchin. Oral tradition traces bo use of back even further, to the 1400's. After the Japanese (Satsuma clan) occupied Okinawa (1609), although bladed weapons were banned, there is some evidence that the bo was actually allowed to flourish as a means of civilian defense. Today, in Okinawa the bo and other traditional weapons are taught separately, but have been adopted by many karate systems. Since many movements of traditional Okinawan weapons duplicate or closely parallel techniques from karate, some suggest the unique character and style of Karate itself was influenced by these weapons. In researching the techniques used, some authorities have noted the similarity of bo techniques to Japanese spear techniques, something that would support the hypothesis that the Japanese samurai might have encouraged adoption of bo techniques based on other Japanese weapon systems.
Boxe Francais (France)
Boxe Francais is a French style of boxing where kicks are permitted.
Boxing is often called the Western martial art, but it is more accurately identified as a martial sport. It probably originated in ancient Greece or Rome, as there is evidence that the Greek Pankration competitions included an event similar to boxing. The pugilistic sport then spread to most every Western country, and, in the early 20th century, it became a popular spectator sport. Boxing techniques have played an important role in the development of modern kickboxing, since they are often judged as being more effective than the hand techniques of the Asian martial arts. Boxing techniques are now being added to the curriculum at many schools that teach eclectic martial arts.
Bushidokan (Unites States)
Bushidokan is an eclectic art of recent origin, founded in the late 1960's by Jim Harrison. It is a combination of Okinawan karate, Judo, and some Jujutsu, with the emphasis on karate. The Karate portion of training is quite similar to Shotokan , definitely Okinawan in ancestry. Bushidokan is best suited for those interested in effective Sreet self-defense, tournament fighting, and fairly rugged physical conditioning. Beginning students learn seven basic stances, seven basic strikes (six linear, one circular), seven basic blocks (one of which is circular) and seven basic kicks. Many of the self-defenses taught incorporate techniques not included in the "basic" seven, thus exposing the student to a greater variety of techniques. These include a number of throws, a few soft (redirecting) blocks, and several wrist/hand locks. Two basic self-defense strategies, a direct counter and an indirect counter, are taught for each type of attack. Sparring is introduced as students progress, but is always optional, and ranges from "no contact" to "full contact."
Capoeria is the common name for the group of African martial arts that came out of west Africa and were modified and mixed in Brazil. These original styles included weapons, grappling and striking, as well as animal forms that became incorporated into different components and sub styles of the popular art. It is highly energetic, acrobatic, and difficult to master. Capoeria was born in the "senzalas" in the 1500's, the places where African slaves brought from Africa to work in the sugar cane were kept, and developed in the "quilombos", the places where they used to run to when they fled from their enslavers. The slaves developed it out of necessity. They lacked a form of self-defense, so they developed a martial art with the things they had in hand, such as sugar cane knives and three-quarter staffs. To avoid punishment by their superiors, the slaves had to disguise their martial movements as a dance, hence the art's rhythmical nature and musical accompaniment. In the early 1800's, Capoeria was outlawed in Brazil, especially in its "home state" of Bahia, where gangs utilized it as their personal fighting style against police. The law was eventually rescinded and the art continues to grow in popularity as Brazilian masters spread it around the world.
Capoeria is practiced in a stylized dance in a circle called the "roda", with music provided by percussion instruments, such as the "agogo" and the "atabaqui," and the "berimbau."Capoeria places a heavy emphasis on using mobility to evade attacks. It relies heavily on kicks and leg sweeps for attacks and dodges for defenses. Since original practitioners had limited physical freedom, defense is mostly by evasion, not by blocking. Hand strikes or parrys are seldom taught, though arm positioning for blocks is taught.The "ginga" (swing), which is the footwork of Capoeria, consists in changing the basic stance (body facing the adversary, front leg flexed with body weight over it, the other leg stretched backward) from the right leg to the left leg, and vice versa, again and again. When fighting, it is rare to stop in one stance, and in this case, you just "follow" your opponent with your legs, preventing him from getting close, or by preparing a fast acrobatic move to take advantage when he or she attacks. The rest of the time, you just keep changing stances, feinting, and doing the equivalent of boxing "jabs." Capoeria includes numerous acrobatic kicks, punches, and flips. Some techniques, such as the cartwheel kick, were created because the slaves often had their wrists bound by chains to prevent escape.Capoeria also puts a heavy emphasis on ground fighting, but not grappling and locks. Instead, it uses a ground stance (from the basic stance, you just fall over your leg stretched back, flexing it, and leaving the front leg stretched ahead), from which you make feints, dodges, kicks, leg sweeps, acrobatics, etc. Hand positioning is important but it' is used only to block attacks and ensure balance, although Street fighting "capoeiristas" use the hands for punches. It incorporates the "maculele," done with blades, and the "maracatu," done with sticks.During training, standing exercises are done, with emphasis on the "ginga", the footwork characteristic of the art, and on the basic kicks: "bencao" a front-stomping kick; "martelo" a roundhouse kick; "chapa" a side-kick; "meia-lua de frente" a low turning kick; "armada" a high turning kick; and "queixada" an outside-inside crescent kick. Then walking sequences are done, with the introduction of somersaults, back flips, and headstands, in couples and individually. Some more technical training follows, with couples beginning a basic and slow "jogo," and then the whole class forms and goes for "roda" games for at least 30 minutes. Capoeriaconditions and develops the muscles, especially the abdominal muscles."Regional," a newer, faster, more popular style of Capoeria, was created by Mestre (Master) Bimba (who was responsible for the legalization of Capoeriaand the founder of the first academy). Break dancing evolved from this style, about 90% of all break dancing moves came directly from it. This is a faster game, less a fight and more of a showing off. Flourishes, high kicks, and aerial, acrobatic maneuvers are the hallmark of the "regional" game, which is usually played to the beat of the "berimbau," known as sao bento grande."Angola" is a more closed, harder style that is closest to the original African systems that came to Brazil. Angola games are generally slow and low to the ground, and incorporate a lot of trickery, sweeps and takedowns, and physically grueling movements that require great strength and balance."Iuna" is not really a style of Capoeria. Rather, it refers to a rhythm of the berimbau that is played when somebody dies or when mestres (masters) play alone. There is no singing when iuna is played, and only masters are allowed to play during iuna.
Celtic Wrestling (Europe)
Celtic wrestling is an ancient European wrestling style. Two competitors shake hands, face each other chest-to-chest, wrap their arms around each other and grasp their hands behind the opponent's back. Without releasing the grip behind the opponent's back, each competitor tries to make his or her opponent touch the ground with any body part other than the feet.
Chang-chuan is a long fist Chinese boxing style developed by Master Kuo I around the first century AD. It appears to be the origin of many Wushu arts. It is characterized by strong stances, high kicks, and a variety of hand techniques. Its movements are so graceful that they have been used by the Chinese opera. It has recently become a popular style in forms competition.
Cha Yon Ryu (United States)
Cha-yon-ryu (Natural Way) is an eclectic, fairly new martial art founded in 1968 by Kim Soo of Houston, Texas. Taekwondo and Shotokan karate contribute kicking techniques, strong stances, and direct, linear strikes and blocks. Okinawa-te movements add techniques with some angularity, and Quanfa-gongfu contributes fluid, circular movements. Hapkido adds defenses against chokes, grabs, and armed attacks, as well as various throwing and falling techniques. Students strive to fulfill "The Dojang Hun" (training hall oath): seek perfection of character, live the way of truth, endeavor, be faithful, respect your seniors, and refrain from violent behavior.
This is one of the oldest Manipur martial arts that in modern times has evolved into a competitive art. Contestants use a stick "cheibi" encased in leather and about two and a half feet long in combination with a leather shield (three feet in diameter) to represent an actual sword and shield. The competition takes place on a flat circular surface approximately twenty-one feet in diameter. Within the circle are two lines each approximately three feet long and six feet apart. The winner is the person who scores the most points by skillfully striking his opponent. In ancient practice, actual swords and spears were permitted.]
Chiao Ti (China)
Ancient Chinese wrestling, where the practitioners both wore horned helmets and tried to gore each other.
The Chinese art of seizing and locking that uses striking and seizing of acupuncture points, grasping of tendons and blood vessels, and the locking of joints, techniques widely incorporated into Chinese fighting arts. Included is a mix of throws, takedowns, kicking, punching, and joint manipulations that parallel techniques in Judo, Jujutsu, and karate. Techniques are also associated with Dim-mak.
Chinese Boxing (China)
This is a generic term for most Chinese martial arts.
Chinese Wrestling (Shuai-Jao) (China)
Modern Chinese wrestling, mostly groundwork, but has some flipping and throwing.
After spending years studying Shuri-no-Te (now known as Shorin-ryu) and Naha-no-Te (now known as Shorei-ryu), Dr. Tsuyoshi Chitose, also known as Chinen Gua in Okinawa, created Chito-ryu by combining the merits of each these styles with his medical knowledge to come up with a healthier alternative. Upon his death in 1984, his son, Yasuhiro Chitose, assumed the name of his father and responsibilities as the new Soke.
Cuong-nhu (pronounced "kung new") is an eclectic, fairly new martial art founded in 1965 in Vietnam by Ngo Dong. The first Cuong-nhu school opened in Gainesville, FL, in 1971. It is an integrated martial art blending the hard aspects (cuong in Vietnamese) from Shotokan karate, Wing-chun kung-fu, and American boxing with the soft aspects (nhu in Vietnamese) of Judo, Aikido, and Tai-chi. In addition, it also incorporates Vovinam, a Vietnamese martial art that uses both hard and soft techniques. In keeping with its inclusive nature, Cuong-nhu instruction extends beyond the traditionally martial to public speaking, poetry, painting, and philosophy. There is a strong emphasis on developing self control, modesty, and a non-defeatist attitude.Beginning students focus on the hard, linear arts, mostly modified Shotokan karate techniques and patterns. Experienced students add movements from more advanced softer, circular arts such as Aikido and Taiji. All levels get some exposure to the entire range of styles. Training emphasizes moral and philosophical development, and students discuss the "code of ethics" and selections from Cuong-nhu philosophy in class. As with other styles, belt color indicates rank as certified by regional testing.
Daito Ryu Aiki-Jujustu (Japan)
A prominent sub-style of Jujutsu, Daitoryu AikiJujutsu is an old Jujutsu style presumably founded by Yoshimitsu Minamoto, in the eleventh century. Originally, it was only practiced by the highest ranking Samurais in the Takeda family in the Kai fiefdom in northern Japan. Feudal overlord Shingen Takeda died in 1573, and his kinsman, Kunitsugu Takeda, moved to the Aizu fiefdom, where he became Jito, overseer of the fief. Kunitsugu introduced Daitoryu AikiJujutsu to the Aizu fiefdom, where the secret fighting art only was taught to the feudal lords and the highest ranking Samurais and ladies in waiting.The feudal system was broken down by 1868 when the Meiji restoration begun. Tanomo Saigo (1829-1905), the heir to daito-ryu, gave the system to Sogaku Takeda (1859-1943) and instructed him to pass it on to future generations. Sogaku first used the term "Daitoryu AikiJujutsu" in the beginning of the twentieth century. Two of his best known students were Morihei Ueshiba, founder of Aikido, and Yong Sul Choi, founder of Hapkido.Daito-ryu AikiJujutsu has four levels of techniques: shoden (Lowest), chuden (advanced), okuden (highest), and hiden (secret techniques).Shoden. Training starts with shoden where the student learns ukemi (falling and rolling), taisabaki (moving the body), tesabaki and ashisabaki (movements of the hands and feet and legs), defenses against grappling, and defenses against punches, kicks and weapons, such as short and long staffs (tanbo, jo, and chobo) and knives and swords (tanto and katana). Techniques are taught to be used from standing, sitting, or lying positions. In the first transmission scroll, fiden mokuroku, describes the first 118 Jujutsu techniques from the shoden level.Chuden. Advanced Jujutsu techniques with large, soft movements, as in Aikido. The actual aiki training consists of a combination of these techniques and those from shoden. At this level of training, some amount of force is used.Okuden. Movements are performed as small as possible. Breathing, reflexes, circles, and timing are used instead of muscles. The techniques are small and fast, and it is not necessary to hold an attacker to throw him or her since the reactions of the attacker are used against him or her. It is believed that the attacker gets a soft shock, similar to an electric shock, which activates the reflexes, making it easy to manipulate the attacker.Hiden. The secret techniques. Soft techniques that only work properly when the whole body and proper breathing is used. The attacker is touched easily and the techniques are so small that even experienced martial artists cannot see what is happening.
Also Dim-mok, or Dian-mai. The Chinese science of attacking the body and/or its acupuncture points or nerve centers to disrupt internal energy (ki, chi, or qi), organs, or blood flow and cause injury, or death, immediately, or hours, days, or weeks later. Techniques are associated with Chin-na.
Dumog is a Philippine wrestling style that uses grappling techniques to throw an opponent. The opponent's back must land squarely on the ground for the throw to count.
Consists of three main swordsmanship sports:Foil: Thin round blade. Thrust at opponent. Only the torso is a legal target.Epee: Tin triangular blade. Thrust at opponent. Any part of the body is a legal target.Saber: Flat blade. Thrust or slash opponent. Anything above the knees is legal target.Full-Contact Karate (United States)Full-contact karate was founded in the early 1970's by Mike Anderson and Jhoon Rhee. Similar to boxing, the goal is to knockout the opponent or to win on a decision by judges. Unlike boxing, kicks are permitted and a minimum number of kicks must be delivered each round.
Gatka is one of the most esoteric martial arts. It is a battle-tested, ancient martial art that survives today as part of the Sikh culture. Sikhism was founded in the Punjab region of India in the 15th century by Guru Nanak, who started the religion as an alternative to the dominant Hindu and Muslim faiths. Devout Sikhs follow several tenets of the religion, the most visible is the turban worn by Sikh men and women. Gatka specializes in sword "shaster" and shield fighting, but includes other weapons, including the staff "lathi," the quoit "chakram," and the exotic "chakar," which looks like a wagon wheel with weights at the end of each spoke. The chakram and chakar are weapons unique to Gatka. The chakar is wielded by grasping the center, the hub of the "wagon wheel," and spinning it around, striking opponents with the weights. The chakram is basically a flat steel hoop with the outside edge honed to a sharp edge. The chakram is spun around the index finger and let fly to at the target. The chakram is the favorite weapon of television's Xena: Warrior Princess. Gatka has been used effectively for centuries. Besides the numerous conflicts and wars in Punjab or the famous Sikh regiments of World War II, Sikhs armed with lathi were used as riot police in the rough-and-tumble street of 1930's Shanghai. Although training in Gatka may be hard to find for non-Sikhs, the art is exciting to watch in cultural demonstrations.
Glima is the national sport of Iceland, similar to wrestling. It is illegal to kick or strike. Each participant wears three leather belts: one around each thigh and one around the waist, each thigh belt is fastened by a strap to the waist belt. These straps are used for gripping the opponent. In a match the two wrestlers constantly walk around each other and try to bring down the opponent using eight basic techniques. The match ends when one of the wrestlers falls down.
Goju-ryu was founded in the 1930's by Miyagi Chojun from Okinawan karate and Chinese Kempo techniques. It is combination of hard "go" and soft "ju" techniques that work together similar to yin and yang. Linear motion is combined with circular movements. Patterns are practiced slowly with emphasis on breathing.
"Haku" means white (the color symbolizing purity) and "da" means to strike or hit. In Japanese the term is used to refer to Chinese Ch'uan fa systems (Kempo in Japanese), meaning to "beat by hand." Another term with the same meaning is shuhaku. In Okinawa, the term hakuda was used more specifically to refer to the art of striking the vital points (atemi) of another person in self-defense without making the self impure. Hakuda in this context means "white strike," or "striking without impurity," which is an ancient Buddhist poetic description of the art. Hakuda is often combined with grabbing techniques (hakushu) found within many Japanese and Okinawan kata, and Korean hyung.
Hapkido is the "other" Korean martial art. Hapkido translates to the art (do) of coordinating (hap) power (ki). It is an art that balances hard and soft, linear and circular, and resistance and acceptance. Hapkido's name is written with the same three Chinese characters as Aikido. However, its techniques bear little resemblance to those of Aikido.Hapkido was founded by Choi Yongsul, a Korean who during the Japanese occupation of Korea had been taken to Japan to work. In Japan, Choi used the Japanese name Tatsujutsu (some say it was Asao) Yoshida, since at that time, all immigrants to Japan took Japanese names. According to the most widely propagated history, he worked as a houseboy (some say he was adopted) in the household of Sogaku Takeda, a Daitoryu Aikijutsu master, and that he worked there from 1913 (age 9) to 1943 (when Takeda died).
However, Daito-ryu records do not reflect this and Takeda's descendants and followers deny that Choi ever studied with their master. Some claim that Choi's Daito-ryu training was limited to attending seminars. Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido, was also a student of Takeda (undisputed). Hapkido and Aikido both have significant similarities to Daitoryu AikiJujutsu, so it would seem that Hapkido's link to it is real, regardless of how and where Choi trained.Choi returned to Korea after Takeda's death and began studying Korean arts and teaching yu sool or yawara (other names for Jujutsu), eventually calling his kwan (school) the Hapki Kwan. Han Jae Ji began studying under Choi and eventually started his own school, where he taught what he called Hapkido, after the grandmaster's school. Ji now calls his system sin moo Hapkido. In the 1970's and 80', Hapkido was taught as the style of choice to elite South Korean armed forces units.Along the way, Hapkido adopted various techniques from tang soo do, tae kyon, and other Korean kwans. Some Korean sources emphasize the Korean arts lineage of Hapkido over the AikiJujutsu lineage; some even omit the AikiJujutsu connection.
Hapkido gained notice in the United States in the 1970's through the Billy Jack movies in which Master Bong Soo Han performed fighting sequences as a stand-in for the star.Hapkido sprang from the same roots as Taekwondo; however, there are major differences between the two arts. Whereas hard styles, such as Taekwondo, use hard, linear, forceful techniques like chops, punches, and kicks, and soft styles, such as tai-chi and Judo, use soft, circular, accepting techniques such as spins and throws, Hapkido uses the principles of both hard and soft styles. It combines joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and strikes for practical self-defense. It is more soft than hard and more internal than external, but elements of each are included. It emphasizes circular motion, non-resistive movements, and control of the opponent.
Development of ki (internal energy) is also stressed.Hapkido is composed three main principles: water principle, circular motion, and non-resistance. Water flows around objects in its path instead of resisting them, uses the force of many separate drops to wear away an obstruction, takes the form of any vessel it is placed into, and it changes state (liquid, gas, and solid) as required. Hapkido incorporates these attributes of water into its fighting style. In the circular motion, what goes around, comes around. If you respect others, they respect you. Force is never met with force; it is deflected and redirected with a circular technique. If you confront anger with anger, there will be a clash, so oppose anger with calm. The non-resistance principle is the major area in which Hapkido differs from other styles of karate. It is represented by yin and yang, the balance between opposites. In nature, opposites work together in harmony, such as night/day and work/rest. The idea is to deflect an opponent's strength, not clash with it. The non-resistance principle achieves harmony by combining the water principle and circular motion. When pushed, give way (water principle), rotate, and then throw the opponent (circular principle).
Although Hapkido contains both outfighting and infighting techniques, the goal in most situations is to get inside for a close-in strike, lock, or throw. When striking, power is derived from hip rotation. As a general rule, beginners concentrate on basic strikes and kicks, along with a few joint locks and throws. Some of the striking and kicking practice is pattern-like, with no partner, but most is done with a partner who is holding heavy pads that the student strikes and kicks with full power. Some schools use patterns, some do not; some do sparring and some do not, although at the advanced levels, most schools do at least some sparring. Although Hapkido may be used in competition, it is not considered a sport.Hapkido originally focused on pressure point strikes, joint locks, and throws, but now, thanks to the influence of Master Ji, it also includes highly refined kicks and hand strikes. Various weapons are taught, including the cane, kubatan, staff, and belt.
A very hard core defense oriented system. that does not teach forms.Hojojitsu means "cord tying art." This art offers quick and efficient methods of tying and restraining an opponent who is often struggling to escape. During the feudal warring period, confrontations between armed opponents did not always end in death, and this art was often used to finish off those who had already been subdued or incapacitated. Grappling techniques ended in hold downs, or other incapacitating positions. At this point, special techniques of tying up an opponent were used. Various binding patterns and methods were used for different classes (warrior, noble, farmer, merchant, artisan, monk, etc.) based on their habits, weapons, skills, and/or anatomical differences. The tying methods were intricate and assumed aesthetically beautiful patterns.
Hwa Rang Do (Korea)
Hwa rang do "the way of flowering manhood" is a comprehensive martial arts system whose training encompasses unarmed combat, weaponry, internal training and healing techniques. It is said to have been founded 2000 years ago by the Buddhist monk, Bopsa Won Kwang. It is based upon the fighting style of Hwarang warriors (described in the History of Taekwondo topic). However, the connection between the martial arts practiced by the Hwarang warriors and what is now called Hwarang-do is tenuous at best.
Modern Hwarang-do is a combination of several other Korean arts that began in the 1960's.In March 1942, Dr. Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee, were introduced to the Buddhist monk Suahm Dosa by their father, who was a personal friend of the monk, and they began their formal training at ages 5 and 6. The brothers lived and trained as the sole students with the monk mostly on weekends and during school vacations, but they also trained in other martial arts when they were unable to train under the monk. Influences include boxing, Yudo, Komdo, and Tang-soo-do. In addition, the brothers attained Master level in Hapkido from its founder, Choi Yongsul, in October 1956.
In April 1960, Dr. Joo Bang Lee founded Hwarang kwan by combining Suham Dosa's techniques with those of the other systems in which he had trained. This marked the first time the Hwarang were used publicly in connection with unarmed Korean martial arts. However, there is no way of knowing if the techniques that Suahm Dosa taught the monks actually was the martial art of the Hwarang of the Silla dynasty. Lee later renamed his art, Hwarang-do. This marked the first time the character for "way" was used in connection with the Hwarang and the unarmed martial arts.Its techniques are similar to those of Hapkido and Kuk-sool, they include kicks, puncher, throws, joint locks, pressure point strikes, and ki development. The art's similarity to Hapkido and Kuk-sool is often explained as having resulted from numerous martial arts experts, who would later become masters and found their own styles, having trained together in Korea during the 1940's and 1950's. Hapkido is often taught in combination with Taekwondo.Hwarang-do is a combination of um (soft/circular movement) and yang (hard/linear movement).
The Mu-sul (martial aspects) of hwa rang do may be further explained in four distinct, though interconnecting, paths of study:Nae-gongNae-gong deals with developing, controlling, and directing one's ki, or internal energy force, through breathing and meditation exercises in conjunction with specific physical techniques.Wae-gongWae-gong includes more than 4000 offensive and defensive combative applications. Combining elements predominantly hard and linear in nature with those that are soft and circular; these techniques mesh to form a natural fighting system. This path includes full instruction in all hand strikes and blocks (trapping and grabbing as well as deflection applications, using the hands, wrist, forearm, elbows, arms, and shoulders), 365 individual kicks, throws and falls from any position and onto any surfaces, human anatomical structure as it pertains to combat applications (knowing and utilizing the body's weak points to effectively control the opponent, regardless of their size), joint manipulation and breaking, finger pressure-point application, prisoner arrest, control and transport, grappling applications, forms, offensive choking and flesh-tearing techniques, defense against multiple opponents, breaking techniques, counter-attacks, and killing techniques.Moo-gi-gongMoo-gi-gong involves the offensive and defensive use of the over 108 traditional weapons found within 20 categories of weaponry.
By learning these various weapon systems, the practitioner may most effectively use any available object as a weapon as the situation demands.Shin-gongShin-gong is the study, development, and control of the human mind to attain one's full potential and mental capabilities. Techniques are taught to achieve an increase in one's total awareness, focus, and concentration levels. Included are instruction in controlling one's mind, development of the "sixth sense," memory recall, the study of human character and personalities, practical psychology, visualization, the art of concealment and stealth as utilized by special agents (sulsa), as well as advanced, secretive applications. Hwarang-do teaches both a martial art (Mu-sul) and healing art (In-sul). If one is able to injure or worse, then he or she should know how to heal as well; once again maintaining harmony through balance of opposites. First aid and revival techniques are taught in conjunction with the traditional full studies of acupuncture, Royal Family acupressure, herbal and natural medicines, and bone setting.
The Japanese art of drawing the sword for combat. The object is to draw the sword perfectly, striking as it is drawn, so that the opponent has no chance to defend against the strike. It is usually practiced in solo kata form. It has strong philosophical ties to Kenjitsu. It now practiced as a spiritual discipline, not as a method of self-defense. Iaido is often taught at Kendo schools.Iaijitsu (Japan)The art of drawing the sword and cutting as a single motion. It was traditionally a sub-specialization of Kenjitsu and one of several martial disciplines usually practiced by traditional warriors before the modern era. In the 1930's, it was popularized as a separate discipline Iaido).
Isshin-ryu was found in Okinawa in 1954 by Shimabuku Tatso by combining Shorin-ryu (90%) and Goju-ryu (10%) techniques. It uses low kicks, short stances, and awareness of surroundings to be useful for street fighting. Isshin-ryu emphasizes:Kicks and punches that are thrown from natural stances eliminating wasted motions and giving you split-second advantages over opponents using some of the other styles.Stresses equal proficiency with both hand and foot techniques, making it a more versatile form of karate because you have no weak points.Close-in techniques useful in street fighting, making it a more realistic style of karate.Snap punches and snap kicks, where the limb does not fully extend and is immediately retracted (preventing excessive strain on the knees and elbows) permitting you to move in and out quickly without putting yourself in a disadvantageous position, should you miss or misjudge.Blocks with muscular portion of the forearm rather than the bone.Fist formed with the thumb on top rather than wrapped over the first two fingers (this strengthens the wrist to help prevent buckling at the wrist on impact).Uses a vertical punch, which increases speed and may be focused at any given point.
Jeet-kune-do (United States)
A non-classical form of Chinese kung-fu that was founded by Bruce Lee in the 1960's. It is a fluid art that, at times, resembles many other martial arts, since it absorbs what is useful from other arts and rejects that which is useless. "Jeet" means to stop, "kune" means fist, and "do" means way, thus it is "the way of the intercepting fist." Jeet-kune-do is formless and constantly changing. Its main tenet is "absorb what is useful, reject what is useless, add what is specifically your own." Since Lee's death in 1973, the art has evolved into two variations: original Jeet-kune-do, which is promoted as the art Lee practiced until his death; and Jeet-kune-do concepts, which applies Lee's strategies and philosophies to martial arts techniques drawn from various Indonesian, Philippine, and Thai styles. Jeet-kune-do is renowned for its Sreet effectiveness and is almost never used in competition. Training includes instruction in kicking, punching, trapping, and grappling. Jeet-kune-do emphasizes simplicity. There are no set techniques, it emphasizes improvised problem solving. Sparring emphasizes blocking and attacking at the same time along a centerline.
The Japanese art of military horsemanship.
The way of the jo that was derived from Jojitsu. Included are methods of striking, parrying, blocking, and sweeping often practiced in pattern sets.Jigero Kano (1860-1938) developed Judo in Japan in the 1800's as a sport, based upon Jujutsu. Mastering several styles of Jujutsu in his youth, Kano began to develop his own system based on modern sports principles. In 1882, he founded the Kodokan Judo Institute in Tokyo where he began teaching Judo; it is still the international authority for Judo. The popularity of Judo increased dramatically after a famous contest hosted by the Tokyo police in 1886 where the Judo team defeated the most well-known Jujutsu school of the time. Judo then became a part of the Japanese physical education system and began its spread around the world as its practitioners routinely defeated students of other martial arts.In the early 1900's, President Teddy Roosevelt studied Judo with a Japanese instructor.
Judo is a soft style: "ju" means gentle and "do" means way. It uses throws, grappling, hold downs, elbow locks, and chokes to win matches. Judo has been an Olympic medal sport since the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and is practiced worldwide in its original form with few changes to the art itself. In 1992, Judo competition for women was added to the Olympics. Although it is primarily a sport, it is also useful in self-defense since it uses throws, arm locks, and chokes, to control the opponent. Kano emphasized the educational value of martial art training so that it could be a path or way of life in which all people could participate and benefit. He eliminated some of the traditional Jujutsu techniques and changed training methods so that most of the moves could be done with full force without injury.
Judo training emphasizes throwing an opponent to the ground by grasping the body or uniform. Once down, a variety of chokes and joint locks may be used to gain a submission. Two important parts of Judo training, character development and morality, make Judo a preferred martial art for children to practice. Once practitioners obtain an advanced rank, they are taught deadly, non-sportive techniques for use in self-defense.Judo is practiced on mats and consists primarily of throws (nage-waza), along with katame-waza (grappling), which includes pins (osaekomi-waza), chokes (shime-waza), and arm bars (kansetsu-waza).
Additional techniques, including striking and various joint locks are found in the Judo patterns. Judo is generally compared to wrestling but it retains its unique combat roots. As an offspring of Jujutsu, Jujutsu techniques are often taught in Judo classes.Because the founder was involved in education, Kano was President of Tokyo University, Judo training emphasizes mental, moral, and character development as much as physical training.
Most instructors stress the principles of Judo such as the principle of yielding to overcome greater strength or size, as well as the scientific principles of leverage, balance, efficiency, momentum, and control.Judo training has many forms for different interests. Some students train for competition by sparring (randori) and they enter many tournaments. Other students study the traditional art and patterns of Judo. Other students train for self-defense, and yet other students play Judo for fun. Unlike other martial arts, Judo competition rules, training methods, and rank systems are relatively uniform throughout the world.
Jujitsu (Japan)Used by the Samurai warriors. The founding of its various schools (ryu in Japanese) date from the 8th to 16th centuries. During this time, there was almost constant civil war in Japan and the classical weapon systems were developed and constantly refined on the battle field. Since the warriors donned armor before entering the battlefield, kicks and punches had little effect, so chokes and joint locks were used to attack unprotected targets like the neck, wrists, and ankles.
Jujitsu is not a contest of muscular strength, nor does it attempt to maim or kill. Its purpose is to incapacitate the opponent temporarily, using throws, locks, and striking techniques, with a strong emphasis on defensive techniques. It is also characterized by in-fighting and close work. It is a circular, hard/soft, external style. Training is tactical with a heavy emphasis on sparring and mock combat.The first publicly recognized Jujutsu ryu was formed by Takenouchie Hisamori in 1532 and consisted of techniques of sword, jo, and dagger as well as unarmed techniques. In 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu brought peace to Japan by forming the Tokugawa military government. This marked the beginning of the Edo period of Japanese history (1603-1868), during which warring ceased to be a dominant feature of Japanese life.In the beginning of this period, there was a general shift from weapon types of fighting to weaponless styles. These weaponless styles were developed from the grappling techniques of the weapon styles and were collectively known as Jujitsu. During the height of the Edo period, there were more than 700 systems of Jujitsu. Most modern training focuses on empty-hand combat. The end of the Edo period was marked by the Meiji Restoration, an abortive civil war that moved power from the shogun back to the Emperor. A large proportion of the Samurai class supported the shogun during the war. Consequently, when power was restored to the Emperor, many things related to the Samurai fell into disrepute. An Imperial edict was decreed, declaring it a criminal offence to practice the old style combative martial arts. During the period of the Imperial edict, Jujutsu was almost lost. However, some masters continued to practice their art "underground," or moved to other countries, allowing the style to continue. By the 1900's, the ban on Jujitsu in Japan had lifted, allowing the free practice of the art.
There are many sub styles of Jujitsu, each associated with a different school. Some schools are: Daito-ryu, Danzan-ryu, Shidare-yanagi-ryu, Hokuto-ryu, Hakko-ryu, Hontai-yoshin-ryu, Sosuishi-ryu, Kito-ryu, and Kyushin-ryu.Since its creation, Jujitsu has spawned a number of martial arts, including Judo, Aikido, and possibly Hapkido and Kuk-sool. It is categorized mostly as a system of self-defense, although competitions have recently become popular, especially in Brazilian Jujutsu or Gracie Jujutsu, which incorporates Capoeria techniques and ground work.
Means "way of the bayonet." While bayonet techniques were developed early as the 1600's, with the introduction of rifles into Japan in the Meiji era a standard form of bayonet fighting was developed, Jukenjitsu. It was taught in a special Tokyo military training school (Toyama Gakko). Following World War II (1945), the study was prohibited by the allied occupation, only to be revived in a new form, Jukendo. As a "do" form (meaning the way or path), Jukendo encompassed goals of spiritual and mental development as a byproduct of disciplined practice. The discipline is practiced by Japanese self-defense forces (armed forces) as well as other non-military clubs. Jukendo is practiced by patterns and two man drills. A competitive format was also adopted to test skill levels. Contestants wear protective gear while rifles and bayonets are simulated by wooden counterparts (mokuju). Techniques include proper posture, blocking, and thrusting aimed at three principal areas to simulate a kill: heart, throat, and lower left side.
Karate Connection (United States)
An American Kenpo based school created by Chuck Sullivan and Vic LeRoux. It includes techniques from many different styles, a "use what works" mentality.
Kalari-payattu "the art of wielding weapons in the arena" is an ancient form of combat from southern India. According to its tradition, this martial art was founded by the Sage Parasurama around the 4th century A.D. It was promoted heavily by the warrior Chieftain Thacholi Othenan of North Malabar, reaching its peak of popularity in the 16th Century. This art was historically practiced by both men and women. One of the most famous practitioners of this art was the legendary heroine Unniyarcha who won many battles through her great skill. Kalari-payattu includes both armed and unarmed techniques "verumkai" in which punches, kicks, and strikes are directed toward 108 marman, or vital points. Movements are further taught to be in coordination with breathing (pranayama). Body exercises known as "maipayattu" include body twisting and turning combined with leaps and jumps. The Kalaripayat student learns the efficient use of such weapons as the "modi" (a double gazelle horned dagger), and the "otta" (an "s" shaped stick made from a type of hardwood from the tamarind tree) that is approximately two feet in length and usually has a knobbed end for use in digging into various nerve centers. Metal weapons called "anga thari" are also used in training. In combat these weapons consist of swords, sword and shield combinations, knives, daggers, spear, and the "urumi" a type of very flexible double edged sword.
An eclectic martial art that is a blend of karate (Tang-soo-do), Judo/Jujutsu, Kempo, and Chu'an fa gung fu (Chinese boxing), from which it takes its name. It began in the Palomas settlements of Hawaii from 1949-1952. Five practitioners of their respective martial arts developed Kajukembo to complement each others styles. Siju Adriano D. Emperado, who practiced Kempo and Escrima, is credited with founding of Kajukembo, so Kempo forms its base. Other founders were P.Y.Y. Choo, Frank Ordonez, J. Holck, and Professor C. Chang.
To test the effectiveness of their original techniques, the five founders would get into fights around the Palomas settlements (the worst slum in Hawaii at the time). If a technique succeeded consistently in street fighting it was kept as part of the system. From these field tests came quins, known as the palomas sets (patterns), natural laws (self-defense), tricks (close-quarters fighting), and grab arts (escapes).Kajukembo is effective at all ranges of fighting: kicking, punching, trapping, and grappling. It stresses self-defense street fighting techniques and uses few patterns. The reason for only a few patterns is the belief that a practitioner must be capable in street-defense situations before turning inward to perfect the "art" of Kajukembo. At higher levels, there is meditative and chi training. Kajukembo stresses follow-up techniques based on an opponent's reactions, not stopping with just one hit, to end a fight with the fewest techniques necessary, so it is important to know how an opponent will respond to attacks and how best to take advantage of the reactions.
The training is physically intense and very demanding. Emphasis is placed on bag work (kick, punching, elbows, and knees) as well as sparring and grappling (contact with control). After a certain amount of time training, students begin to throw real punches at each other and their partner is expected to react appropriately or face the consequences. Learning to absorb and soften an impact is also a major facet of training. Quins (patterns) are performed to fine-tune movements, while working with partners on self-defense techniques teaches how to manipulate an opponent and follow up on his or her reactions.Some variations are: Kajukenpo, formed in 1970 by Algene Caraulia, Kenpo karate is considered to be a sub-style of Kajukenbo and is very close to the original Kajukenbo; tum pai, created in part by Sifu Al Dacascos, is administered by Sifu Jon Loren, and incorporates more of the soft, internal Chinese arts; Kajukenbo Chuan-fa was created by Dela Cruz and Professor Emperado and has been taken over by Leonard Endrizzi and Bill Owens. It includes more Chinese martial arts than Kenpo karate and is softer, but no less rigorous; and Wun-hop-kuen-do, the newest sub-style, created by Sifu Dacascos, it contains the original syllabus but with more Chinese and Filipino influence.
Kalaripayit is an ancient Indian martial art that uses pressurepoint strikes, yoga stretching, and venous strangely shaped weapons. Its name literally means "battlefield training." Many researchers theorize that it was the basis upon which the Chinese martial arts developed because they contend that Bodhidharma, the Chinese Buddhist monk who taught at Shaolin Temple, would have learned Kalaripayit in India and transplanted it, along with his religion, to China. Few Kalaripayit practitioners teach anywhere in the world—even in India. Much of the art is said to have degenerated into a martial dance.
Keichu-Do (total devotion to the way) is a scientifically-based, realistic American street fighting art. It was founded in 1960 in the bayou of Louisiana by Dr. Karl William Marx Sr. Keichu-Do teaches that, in self-defense situations, it is best to use simple, no-nonsense techniques to strike the attacker in areas that cause a cascading, destructive crumbling effect to stop the attack before it becomes deadly. Since many attacks begin without warning and the victim is knocked down, Keichu-Do teaches grappling and self-defense from vulnerable positions that are useful for small people and women. The basic fighting philosophy is to "fight smarter, not harder" and to end any confrontation as quickly as possible.
Keichu-Do uses 53 self-defense katas that demonstrate techniques used to disable attackers who use commonly encountered types of attack. Keichu-Do uses efficiency of movement and inherent weaknesses in the design of the human anatomy to disable opponents by significantly damaging their anatomy, even when they are larger/stronger than you are.This "unique" "American" martial art is based upon, and uses, the techniques of traditional Japanese martial arts, such as Karate, Jiujutsu, and Judo, and it uses kata, Karate weapons, Karate uniforms and color belts, Japanese terminology. What is supposedly unique in Keichu-Do is the way the traditional arts are combined with the experiences of Soke Marx, who states that he has had no formal training in the traditional martial arts.Traditional martial arts are based upon the Eastern philosophies of Hinduism, Buddhism, and other religions. Keichu-Do is based upon the Western philosophy of Christianity. Instruction concentrates on physical, mental, and spiritual training and students are held to a high level of moral and ethical standards.
Kempo "way of the fist" (also known as Quan-fa, Chuan-fa, Jiaodishu, Kaiki, and Kenyu) is a Chinese martial art. Its techniques are similar to karate with a focus on Buddhist philosophy. Other arts, such as archery and swordsmanship are also taught in Kempo schools.
Kempo (Ryukyu) (Okinawa)
Ryukyu Kempo (which roughly translates into Okinawan kung-fu, or Chinese boxing science) is the original style of martial arts learned and taught by Gichin Funakoshi on Okinawa, an island in the Ryukyu island chain. It stresses the existence of body points within your opponent that can be struck or grappled for more effective fighting. Funakoshi's first edition book "Ryukyu Kempo" shows him clearly grappling and touching an opponent. Later editions and current karate books only show a practitioner with a retracted punch, where the original shows him actively grappling an enemy. It is felt that Funakoshi was the last of the purists, wanting all to learn the art.
Okinawans, who have a culture and history of their own, became disenchanted with the Japanese, and were less inclined to teach them the "secret techniques" of self-defense. When American military soldiers occupied Japan after WWII, they were fascinated with the martial-arts. It is theorized that the Japanese and Okinawans were reluctant to teach the secrets of their national art to the occupiers, and so taught a "watered down" version of karate-do usually reserved for children. Contemporary Kempo practitioners practice "pressure point fighting" or Kyushu-jitsu and grappling, called tuite. It is an exact art of striking small targets on the body, such as nerve centers, and grappling body points in manners similar to Jujitsu or Aikido.There are a couple of physical differences in Kempo and many other styles. One is a three-quarter punch, rather than a full twist. Second is a fist whereby the thumb stops at the first finger, rather than the first two fingers. Third is the sword hand, which has the little finger placed as parallel as possible to the third finger and the thumb straight and on the inside rather than bent.
Kendo "way of the sword" is a sport and competitive derivative of Kenjutsu. It is a very formal art; linear, hard, and external. Kenjutsu, a general term referring to various sword arts, originated in the 7th or 8th century and became a focus of training for the professional warrior beginning in the 16th century until the modern era, which began in 1868. Practitioners wear Samurai clothing and protective armor and use simulated swords (split bamboo called a "shinai" or wood sword called a "bokken") to spar against one another. Strike areas are limited (head, throat, wrists, and sides of body) and movements are limited. Most techniques are attacks, very little defense is used. Since skill and technique are more important than size and strength, men and women compete against each other. Training mostly consists of two-person drills, basics, and some patterns that have been retained from Kenjutsu. Today, Kendo it is one of the most popular martial disciplines in Japan and is taught as part of the public school curriculum. Although a competitive sport, it emphasizes practice as a discipline to develop personal, moral, ethical, and spiritual values.
The Japanese combative use of a sword. The origins of this art are lost in history. It probably has its origins in 11th or 12th century Japan. It is famous in myth and stories from people like Miyamoto Mushashi in the 15th century. There are 4 root systems, Cujo-ryu, Nen-ryu, Kage-ryu, and Shinto-ryu. These probably all have roots prior to the beginning of the 16th century. In the 16th century, there was an explosion of styles, with many being formed between then and the present. Modern Kenjutsu schools trace their history from either the monk Jion (Nen-ryu or Cujo-ryu) or from Iiosai, the founder of the Tenshin-shoden-katori Shinto-ryu. It was outlawed in 1876 when the wearing of swords was outlawed.Modern Kenjutsu uses a large amount of two-person work, mostly with wooden swords. It involves powerful, high commitment strikes to selected targets to kill the opponent. Some schools use the fukuru shinai, an ancestor of today's weapon. It requires strong spiritual and philosophical study, similar to that of Aikido.
Kenpo (Kosho Ryu) (Japan)
Japanese based, philosophical art much like Jeet-kune-do but with a Zen influence, meaning lots of mind science material and healing arts. It is not a style of compiled patterns or specific techniques; it is a study of all motion and therefore cannot be stylized to look like a specific teacher or animal movement.Kenpo is the family style of Grandmaster James Mitose. It was first taught to non-family members in Hawaii during the 1940's and 1950's. Mitose called his family style Kyu-sho-ryu Kenpo (old pine tree school fist law). According to Mitose, during the invasion of Genghis Khan, the head monk of the Shaolin Temple fled China and found refuge with the Mitose family. In appreciation for the kindness of the Mitose's, he taught them Shaolin-chuan-fa (Shorinji Kempo in Japanese). In 1235, a Shinto priest, whom James Mitose calls his first ancestor, became enlightened to what we call Kempo. According to Mitose, this man was a martial arts master and a Buddhist monk studying at shaka, who found it difficult to be both. His religion taught him pacifism; his martial art taught him destruction. He pondered this dilemma under an old pine tree, meaning Kosho in Japanese. He became enlightened and was from then on known as, Kosho Bosatsu, the old pine tree enlightened one. He discovered the relationship between man and nature and also the secret of the escaping arts. He founded the Kosho Shorei Temple of Peace True Self Defense and the Kosho Shorei Yoga School.
One of James Mitose's students, William Chow, mixed Kenpo with elements of his father’s Chinese style to produce his own style, called Kara-ho Kenpo. Kenpo's techniques were influenced by those of various Chinese, Japanese, and Hawaiian martial arts. Kenpo training emphasizes a scientific approach to combat. Many patterns, rapid-fire hand techniques, and combinations are taught. Ed Parker popularized the style on the mainland by organizing the style and orienting it toward practical street self-defense. Although it is often categorized as an American martial art, the style's name is written with the same Chinese characters as Chuan-fa, a generic Chinese term for martial arts. The art received a popularity boost after Jeff Speakman, a student of Parker's, showcased it in the movie "Perfect Weapon."
Kiai jitsu (Japan)
The esoteric art of using a loud shout (kiai) as weapon, or as a tool to compliment a technique.
Kickboxing (United States)
Kickboxing is a modern martial sport that combines the hand techniques of Western boxing with the kicks of the Asian martial arts. Although it can be used for self-defense, it is primarily a ring sport. Legends of kickboxing, most of whom rose to star status in the 1970s and 1980s, include Bill "Superfoot" Wallace, Benny "The Jet" Urquidez, Kathy Long, Don "The Dragon" Wilson, and Dennis Alexio. Kickboxing techniques have been adapted for use in various exercise programs that have nothing to do with fighting.
Kobo-jutsu is an Okinawan style of karate characterized by the large array of weapons it uses. The style makes extensive use of forms to perfect techniques.
Kobudo literally means "ancient martial ways." It generally refers to those traditional Okinawan weapons whose history and practice has been linked to Karate. Most Okinawan styles have at least some Kobudo/Kobujutsu curriculum. In addition, there are at least two major Okinawan organizations whose primary focus is these weapons arts: the rRukyu Kobudo Hozon Shinko-kai and the Okinawa Kobudo Renmei. The most common kobudo weapons (and the ones most often taught by Okinawan Karate systems) are: "bo" staff, usually a rokushakubo or "six foot staff," although 4, 9, and 12 foot staffs are also used; "sai" three-tined iron clubs, usually carried as a set of 3; "nunchaku" two short tapered wooden clubs connected at the narrow ends by a short rope or chain; "kama" a sickle, used singly or in pairs; and "tonfa" a club with a hand-length perpendicular handle, the ancestor to the police PR-24, usually used in pairs. Less common weapons are: "koa" a hoe; "eku" a boat oar; "tekko" essentially brass knuckles; "shuchu" a small stick about 5" long; "san-setsu-kon" the 3-section staff; "surujin/suruchen" a weighted chain with a spike or blade on one end,s imilar to the Chinese chain whip or the Japanese manrikigusari; "tinbe" actually, this is two weapons, the tinbe itself, which is a small shield traditionally made of the shell of a sea tortoise, and the "rochin," which is a short spear with a cutting blade; "kusarikama" a kama on the end of a rope or chain; and "nunti" a short spear.
Krav-maga "contact fight/battle" was developed in Israel in the early forties when the underground liberation organizations were fighting for the independence of the State of Israel. At that time, it was illegal to possess weapons. The founder was a champion heavy weight boxer, a Judo champion, an expert in Jijutsu, a trapeze acrobat, and a well-known dancer. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Krav-maga was adopted as the official martial art taught in the defense forces, especially in elite police and army units. It was integrated into army training by Imi Lichenfield, a career IDF officer and chief instructor at the army's physical training facility at the Wingate Institute. Over the years, the Krav-maga has became an integrated part of training in many disciplines such as educational institutes. Today, it is taught in many Israeli public schools.Krav-maga was developed with the perception that classic martial arts were developed to combat weapons different than those of today. Therefore, new unique defensive techniques against weapons as pistols, guns, and hand grenades were developed. It has no patterns or specific sequences that must be followed. Students use the basic moves in conjunction with any one of a number of other moves to fend off an attack, the key idea being adaptability to new situations through improvisation. Training is for practical usage and no contests are used. Emphasis is on speed, endurance, strength, accuracy, and co-ordination. Since Krav-maga by definition is for self defense, it does not have any constitution and judicial rules, so therefore there are no contests and exhibitions. The training is for practical usage in the every day reality. There is a color belt system with a black belt typically granted after 8 to 10 years of practice. Spiritual and philosophical aspects are studied only at the black belt level.
Kuk-sool is a Korean martial art founded in 1958 by Suh Inhyuk. Suh claims to have traveled around Korea as a youth to learn traditional arts from various masters. Those styles included Koong-joong-mu-sool (royal palace martial arts) and Sado-mu-sool (tribal martial arts). Suh then combined all the techniques into the art he named Kuk-sool, which means "national skills." Kuk-sool is one of the most comprehensive systems in the world. It includes numerous kicks, punches, palm strikes, throws, joint locks, pressurepoint strikes, breaking, ki (internal energy) development, and breathing exercises. Instruction often focuses on weapons, including the long sword, short sword, staff, short stick, fan, and rope.
Kung-sool is the Korean art of archery. Koreans have always preferred archery (both afoot and mounted) to the sword. The training is arduous; students often perform 300 dry pulls and shooting 1000 arrows daily.
Kumdo is a Korean martial art of the sword, similarly to Japanese Kendo.
Kyokushin-kai is a Japanese style of karate found by Oyama Masutatsu in the 1950's. The style was influenced by Kempo, Goju-ryu, and Zen. It is powerful art that emphasized breaking, breathing, multiple attacks in quick succession, and kill techniques.
Kyudo "way of the bow" is Japanese classical target archery. It is the oldest of Japan's traditional martial arts; the bow has been used in Japan since prehistoric times. From the 4th to 9th centuries, close contacts between China and Japan had a great influence on Japanese archery, especially the Confucian belief that through a person's archery his true character could be determined. Over hundreds of years, archery was influenced by the Shinto and Zen Buddhist religions along with the pressing practical requirements of warriors. Court nobles concentrated on ceremonial archery, while the warrior class emphasized Kyujutsu, the martial art of using the bow in actual warfare.With the introduction of firearms, the bow as a weapon was neglected and almost died out until Honda Toshizane, a Kyudo instructor at Tokyo Imperial University, combined elements of the warrior style and the court ceremonial style into a hybrid style which ultimately became known as Honda-ryu. This style found great favor with the general public and Honda is generally credited with saving Japanese archery from oblivion. With the American occupation banning all martial art instruction, traditional Kyujutsu schools declined further, and when the ban was lifted, Kyudo, as opposed to Kyujutsu, became widely practiced. The Zen Nihon Kyudo Federation was established in 1953, publishing the standard Kyudo textbook called the Kyohon, and overseeing Kyudo development, both in Japan and internationally.Kyudo is a highly meditative martial art whose ultimate goals are shin (truth, the ultimate reality), zen (goodness), and bi (beauty). By diligent practice, Confucian theory teaches that the archer will become morally good (zen), and this sincerity of personality will excite the aesthetic sense of anyone watching, giving the performance a beauty derived not only from the technical skill of the archer but also from the archer's emotional maturity and spiritual sincerity.All students, no matter which instructor or school, will shoot the same design of Japanese bow that is changed very little from the 12th century. Shooting the bow is difficult since the Kyudo bow is asymmetrical and over 7 feet long with arrows over 3 feet long. Traditionally made of hardwoods, laminated front and back with bamboo, the Japanese bow is one of the longest in the world. It is a natural double re-curve bow with the arrow nocked one-third of the way from the bottom and the bow actually rotating about 270 degrees in the hand at release. The unique design of the bow requires that the bow actually be twisted in full draw to make the arrow fly straight.
Much attention is paid to the ritual of shooting the arrow. The manner in which an arrow is shot is more important than its accuracy. Students typically begin by practicing visualization: performing the shooting motions with no equipment and then perhaps using the gomuyumi (rubber bow), a short stick with a length of rubber tube attached, to acquire the feel of real bow resistance. The first actual shots are fired into a straw bundle, called a makiwara, from a short distance of about three feet. The student then progresses to target shooting at a fixed regulation distance of 28 meters.Styles may be divided into two broad categories, Shamen-uchiokoshi and the modern Shomen-uchiokoshi style, developed by Honda Toshizane. Shamen archers pre-draw the bow at an angle to the body and fix their grip on the bow before raising it. Shomen archers raise the bow straight over the head and fix their final grip on the bow in a pre-draw above the head.
A Hawaiian form of combat that resembles Jujitsu. In the 1800's, the royal Hawaiian family decreed that the art would be restricted to members of the royal Hawaiian family, in fact, it is still illegal to practice the art in the state of Hawaii. Since the 1980's, the veil of secrecy to non-Hawaiians has started to lift with the open teaching of the art in Southern California by Alohe Kolomona Kaihewalu. Lua is a form of combat which resembles Jujutsu in some of its moves. The primary emphasis of the art is joint dislocation.
Marine Corps Line System (United States)
The LINE (Linear Infighting Neurological Override Engagement) Combat System was developed and used by the United States Marine Corps between 1980 and 2002. Designed to be used even while wearing full combat gear, it focused on causing the most painful damage possible with the least amount of movement. The first steps of every move used pressure points and breaking of bones and hard tissue (especially elbows, wrists, knees, and nose) to cause a "neurological override" where extreme pain would overcome the opponent's brain so he could fight back and may even lose consciousness. The initial attack is followed by a takedown, with the attacker keeping pressure on the the broken limb. The takedown is immediately followed by a heel stomp to the opponent's head. Since the Marine is wearing combat boots and full gear, this blow is intended to be lethal.Due to the deadly focus of LINE, it was replaced in 2002 by the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), which has more non-lethal applications. LINE still taught during United States Army Special Forces training at Fort Bragg, NC.
Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (United States)
MCMAP is a system developed in 2001 by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand to hand and close combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the "Warrior Ethos." MCMAP teaches unarmed combat, edged weapons, weapons of opportunity, and of course, rifle and bayonet techniques.MCMAP is combination of ten traditional martial arts, the old Marine close combat system, and the LINE System. The Program uses a belt system similar to that of most martial arts, except that the belts are Marine belts that may be worn with the camouflage uniform so the colors are or complementary colors: tan, grey, green, brown, and black. Green belts may attend additional training to become a martial arts instructors. Instructor status is identified by one vertical tan stripe on the belt. Black belt instructors who train instructors are identified by a vertical red stripe on the belt.For more information: http://www.usmc.mil/news/publications/Documents/MCO%201500.54A.pdf
Martial Signing (United States)
This is strange one. Martial Signing is a unique method of self-defense that integrates the vocabulary of American Sign Language with concepts of Pressure Point Fighting.
MMA (United States)
Mixed Martial Arts is a pseudo style that is a new way of thinking about old martial arts. Its are gleaned from techniques that are used effectively by different practitioners in open, non-style-specific sparring or competition that is designed to have as few rules as possible while still ensuring safety against death or server or permanent injury.Probably the first MMA was pankration, a combination of striking and grappling that was introduced in the Olympic Games in 648 BC. However, for the most part, martial arts were individualistic and specialized in only one or two aspects of fighting, such as kicking, punching, locks, throws, etc.
Sport MMA. Mixed Martial Arts used for sporting competition, such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), Pride Fighting Championship, or Vale Tudo style fighting matches. These matches usually have two unarmed persons with the core rules being: no biting, no eye-gouging (with fingers or chin), no fish-hooking (inserting body parts such as the fingers into bodily crevices such as the mouth or nose), and no groin attacks (striking or squeezing the groin). Rules are pretty much what the promoters make up. More restrictive promotions of MMA include old Pancrase, Shoot-fighting, or RINGS rules. These rule sets often ban striking on the ground, closed-fist striking, or both. In general, boxing (kickboxing/Muay Thai included), wrestling (freestyle, Greco-Roman, and to a lesser extent Judo), and Brazilian Jijutsu are the three styles that comprise the core of nearly all modern MMA training.
Amongst the shoot styles, two stood out for their effectiveness, wrestling and Brazilian Jiujutsu (BJJ). Jiujutsu practitioners had the early advantage since wrestlers were not trained in striking techniques. Once wrestlers started training in striking, the advantage disappeared. This was one of the first usages of cross-training and lead to the development of mixed martial arts (MMA). Wrestling based MMAs evolved into two styles, the ground-and-pound (takedown and then punch relentlessly) and the clinch-and-pound (tie-up while standing and punch relentlessly).In early MMA competitions, strikers (karate fighters, kick boxers, and boxers) regularly lost since they had no grappling skills. After they add ground fighting to their training, they scored major upsets over BJJ fighters, and showed that strikers could be effective in the sport. BJJ saw the error in its ways and added wrestling and Muay Thai to its training, and became competitive again.
Modern MMA practitioners train in all fighting disciplines but they tend to base their overall strategy on one particular style of fighting and become associated with it. The primary styles of modern MMA are as follows:
Sprawl-and-brawlers are a strikers who have trained in ground fighting to avoid takedowns but try to keep the fight standing. If taken to the ground, they try to tie-up their opponents and survive until they can get back to standing or until the referee restarts the fight. Maurice Smith is credited with introducing this style by becoming a successful kick boxer in a time when ground fighters were dominating the sport. Examples of sprawl-and-brawlers are Chuck Liddel, Pedro Rizzo, and Wanderlei Silva.
Clinch-and-pounders are wrestlers who have added striking to their training. Since wrestlers are good at clinching, they prefer to strikes from within the clinch. If the fight goes to the ground, their wrestling skills come into play. Don Frye was among the first wrestlers to add strikes to his arsenal, but it was Randy Couture's fight against Vitor Belfort in which he used close range boxing to out-strike a reputedly superior boxer that was the true birth of this style. He demonstrated that standing and ground were not the only phases of combat. Using Greco-Roman clinching techniques, he showed that the clinch could be used effectively. Examples of clinch-and-pounders are Dan Henderson, Quinton Jackson, and Hens Pulver.
Ground-and-pounders are wrestlers or other fighters skilled in defending submissions and skilled at takedowns. They take every fight to the ground, maintain a solid top position, and pound away until their opponents submit, are knocked out, or are cut so badly that the referees stop the fights. Since most MMA fights go to the ground at some point, strikes on the ground are essential to a fighter's training. Dan Severn was the first proficient fighter to use ground-and-pound, combining his takedowns with fists, forearm shots, elbows, and knees on the ground. Examples of ground-and-pounders are Mark Coleman, Matt Hughes, and Tito Ortiz.
Moo-do (United States)
Moo-do "Warrior's way" is a new, eclectic style founded by Grand Master Chae T. Goh. It is built on Taekwondo but incorporates a much wider range of techniques than most Taekwondo schools. In 1972, Master Goh came to America after a remarkable history of success as a student, teacher, and innovator in several martial arts in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Moo do combines Taekwondo kicking, Karate punching, and Hapkido grappling and throwing techniques. The style focuses on Street techniques and patterns, as both technique practice and a way of pursuing the "do" or self-improvement aspect of the art. Sport and competition fighting are not encouraged.Movements and forms are basically linear, but with a lot of training in 45-degree shifts for evasion. A wide range of grappling and throwing techniques designed specifically for common self-defense situations on the street are included. Each class begins with stretching and aerobic exercise. The classes are physically challenging, but there is a strong tradition of adapting to what the student's body can handle. Kick-punch combinations and multiple technique attacks are pushed hard from the beginning. Sparring begins at intermediate levels.
Basic meditation is part of the curriculum. Students are instructed in the ethics of the Hwarang-do, including loyalty to nation and family, truthfulness, keeping one's word, loving kindness to one's spouse, and the necessity to "justify your means" when using force. Senior students are required to research and write essays on various topics in the art to pass belt tests.Muay-thai, or Thai boxing, is the national sport in Thailand. It is renowned for its overall simplicity and practicality, using powerful roundhouse kicks, elbow strikes, knee thrusts, and basic boxing style punches. Practitioners are known for their high level of physical conditioning. Although Muay-thai is primarily practiced as a ring sport, mostly by teenage boys in Thailand, it has numerous self-defense applications. It is a very hard, external style, however, because of its roots in heavily Buddhist Thailand, it has some spiritual aspects. Thai boxers typically perform some Buddhist rituals before beginning a match.Modern Muay-thai boxing originated from Krabi Krabong, a Thai weapons art roughly meaning "stick and sword." It is called "the science of the eight limbs" because the successful fighter uses hands, elbows, feet, and knees, When the Thais lost their weapons or fought close quarters with weapons, they used knees, elbows, feet, fists, and head butting. They became famous for their toughness on the battle field with constant wars with their Burmese rivals. King Ramkamheng (1275-1317) wrote the Book of War Learning "Tamrab-Pichei-Songkram" about the Thai war art, the basis of which was weaponless fighting.
The biggest Thai boxing hero of Thailand is the "Black Prince" Nai Khanom Dtom, who was captured by the Burmese and had to fight against 12 of the best Burmese fighters before he was released in 1560. The Thais still have annual Muay-thai tournaments to salute him.In the old days, the fights lasted until one of the fighters was dead or seriously injured. There were no rounds and the fights could have lasted for several hours. No protective gear was used and sometimes they wore rope over their knuckles and glued broken glass on top of it. Before the 1940's, Thai fighters fought bare-knuckled. After World War II, the Thai government became concerned due to the high number of fatalities in the ring and and forced some rules to be used, such as no groin shots or eye pokes, and they started using weight classes, boxing gloves, and rounds. The Thais felt this watered down their sport. As a result, Thais place more emphasis on kicks (particularly to the legs), knee strikes, and grappling. These skills score higher points than hand strikes.Muay-thai involves boxing techniques, hard kicking, and knee and elbow strikes. Low kicks to the thighs are a distinguishing technique. Stand up grappling is also used and allowed in the ring. Training involves rigorous physical training, similar to that practiced by Western boxers, including running, shadow-boxing, and heavy bag work. Much emphasis is also placed on various drills with the so-called "Thai pads". These pads weigh five to ten pounds and cover the wearers forearms. In use, the trainer wears the pads, and may hold them to receive kicks, punches, or knee and elbow strikes, and may also use them to punch at the trainee, similar to the way boxing trainers use focus mitts. The characteristic Muay-thai round kick is delivered with the shin, so the shins become highly conditioned by this type of kicking.Full contact, full-power sparring is usually not done in training, due to the devastating nature of the techniques employed. For training, Thai boxers may box, hands only, with ordinary boxing gloves. Another training drill is for two fighters to clinch, and practice a form of stand-up grappling, the goal of which is to try to land a knee strike. However, full-power kicks, knees, and elbows are typically not used in training.
Promising children will enter dedicated Muay-thai training camps as young as six or seven. Where the fighter will be put on a plan aimed at making him a national champion while still in his teens. The Thais fight frequently, a 20 year old fighter may have had 150 fights. Typically, half the purse from each fight goes to the training camp, with the remainder being split between the fighter and his family. The sport version has been popular in Thailand for decades, and it has recently spread to Japan, the United States, and Europe.
Naginata-Do is another classical martial art; this one uses the naginata (halberd). It is very difficult to earn and emphasizes traditional etiquette and spiritual training. It is a popular competitive sport with women.
"Nin" (perseverance), "jutsu" (techniques of), is the art of Japan's ninja warriors. Surrounded by much controversy, today's Ninjutsu is derived from the traditional fighting arts associated with the Iga/Koga region of Japan. These arts include both Bujutsu-ryuha (martial technique systems) and Ninjutsu -ryuha, which involve a broad base of training designed to prepare the practitioner for all possible situations.Historical records state that certain individuals/families from the Iga/Koga (modern Mie/Omi) region were noted for possessing specific skills and were employed (by Samurai) to apply those and other skills. These records, which were kept by people both within the region and outside of the region, refer to the individuals/families as "Iga/Koga no Mono" (Men of Iga/Koga) and "Iga/Koga no Bushi" (warriors of Iga/Koga). Due to this regions terrain, it was largely unexplored and its people lived a relatively isolated existence. This enabled them to develop perspectives that differed from the "mainstream" society of the time, which was under the direct influence of the upper ruling classes. When necessary, they successfully used the superstitions of the masses as a weapon and became feared and slightly mythologized because of it.
In the mid to late 1500's, their difference in perspective led to conflict with the upper ruling classes and the eventual invasion and destruction of the villages and communities within the Iga/Koga region. The term "ninja" was not in use at this time, but was later introduced in the dramatic literature of the Tokugawa period (1605-1867). During this period, ancestral fears became common and the stereotypical image of "clans of assassins and mercenaries who used stealth, assassination, disguises, and other tricks to do their work" was formed.Over 70 different Ninjutsu -ryu have been identified, however, the majority of them have died out. Most were developed around a series of specific skills and techniques and when the skills of a particular ryu were no longer in demand, the ryu would usually disappear. The three remaining Ninjutsu-ryu (Togakure-ryu, Gyokushin-ryu, and Kumogakure-ryu) are encompassed in Dr. Masaaki Hatsumi's Bujinkan Budo Taijutsu system. These ryu, along with six other Bujutsu-ryu (Gyokko-ryu, Koto-ryu, Takagi-yoshin-ryu, Shinden-fudo-ryu, Gikan-ryu, and Kukishinden-ryu), are taught as a collective body of knowledge.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Ninjutsu was popularized in the West by Stephen Hayes and Masaaki Hatsumi. During this "ninja-boom," instructors of Ninjutsu were everywhere; they have thinned somewhat but still abound. As with all martial arts, it would be wise to be very careful about people claiming to be "masters personally taught by the grandmaster in Japan." Beware of those who say they teach Ninjutsu but only teach karate while wearing a black uniform.The term Ninjutsu does not refer to a specific style, but more to a group of arts, each with a different point of view expressed by the different ryu. The physical dynamics from one ryu to another varies.
Ninjutsu is a generally soft Japanese martial art that incorporates armed and unarmed combat and is based upon the efficient use of momentum and body mechanics. The main principles in combat are posture, distance, rhythm, and flow. Students are taught to use the entire body for every movement and technique, to provide the most power and leverage. They will use the openings created by the opponent's movement to implement techniques, often causing the opponent to run into a weapon. Ninjutsu practitioners evade attacks in ways that places them in advantageous positions from which a simple use of leverage may take control the opponent. Although Ninjutsu does include linear and circular empty hand techniques (often called Taijutsu, which encompasses punching, kicking, and grappling), much of the art's techniques involve weapons such as the sword, dagger, dart, weighted chain, and throwing star. It attempts to incorporate all aspects of fighting in all situations by incorporating such things as ground fighting, infiltration, and cryptography. Historically, ninja were masters of camouflage, concealment, horsemanship, explosives, and poisons, but such skills receive little, if any, emphasis in modern training.
Training progresses through skills in Taihenjutsu (body changing skills) that include falling, rolling, leaping, posture, and avoidance; Dakentaijutsu (striking weapons body techniques) that use the entire body as a striking tool; and Jutaijutsu (supple body techniques) that use locks, throws, chokes, and holds.In the early stages, weapon training is usually limited to practicing how to avoid attacks, overcoming any fear of the weapon and understanding the dynamics of its use from the perspective of "defending against" (while unarmed). In the mid and later stages, once a grounding in Taijutsu body dynamics is in place, practitioners begin studying from the perspective of "defending with" the various weapons.
In the early stages of training, patterns are provided as examples of "what can be done here" and "how to move the body to achieve this result." However, as practitioners progress, they are encouraged to explore the openings that naturally appear in movements and apply spontaneous techniques based upon the principles contained within the pattern. This free flowing style is one of the most important aspects of ninjutsu training. Adaptability is one of the main lessons of all of Ninjutsu-ryu.
Due to the combative nature of the techniques studied, there are no tournaments or competitions in Ninjutsu. Since tournament fighting has set rules that compel the competitor to study the techniques allowed within that framework, this limits not only the kinds of techniques that they study, but also the way in which they will apply those techniques. The way that you train is the way that you fight. Ninjutsu requires that its practitioners be open to any situation and be able to adapt their techniques to ensure survival.
Pa Qua (China)
A form of Daoist boxing meaning "eight diagram palm," referring to the eight trigrams symbols used as the basis of the Chinese classic, I-Ching (Book of Changes), that reflects the constant change and intuition central to pa qua practice. Pa-qua's central exercise is walking in a circular pattern with careful foot and body postures, however, this should not be confused with the art's strategy. Many assume that a Pa-qua practitioner circles an opponent looking for an opening, but the circularity instead refers to use of circular movement, shifting, adjusting, and turning as a method of gaining advantage to the side or behind. Opponent attacks are avoided, redirected, dissolved, lead, or unbalanced, which permits short, powerful counters. Defenders sometimes flow around an opponent's center; sometimes they enter into the center. They are always spinning, unbalancing, and controlling with constant counterattacks of sticking, open hand attacks, elbows, and striking palms, while always avoiding any fixed position or direct resistance. The effect is to create circular energy and power within circular movement of the opponent, similar to Aikido's strategy.
Although pa qua's origin is unknown, history recounts that the discipline was taught to Tung Hai Ch'uan (1798-1879) around 1820 by an unnamed Taoist priest in Kaingsu province who found Tung nearly dead from starvation and nursed him back to health. Later, Tung moved to Peking and became quite well known for his boxing skills. There he was challenged by another famous boxer, Kua Yun-Shen, from a rival style, hsing-i (divine hand), that was known for its direct and powerful linear style. The match lasted three days. During the first two days, neither could gain advantage; both were equally matched. On the third day, Tung took the offensive and ended up defeating his challenger. The two ended up as friends and vowed thereafter to teach the two styles together. Thus, even today when you find one system, the other is often taught along with it. Both are classified as internal disciplines that develop and utilize internal energy of ki (chi in China). Both disciplines share the concept that the mind unites actions and thought into one. Thus, training the mind allows transformation of the internal to the external technique. Pa qua is classified as an internal system along with hsing-i and tai-chi.
Praying Mantis (Tanglangquan/Tanglangpai) (China)
This style imitates the movements of the Praying Mantis, an insect with a killer instinct and blinding speed. Tanglangpai is a combat system composed of several sub-styles that, due to the richness and complexity of their techniques, are considered styles by themselves. Some of these styles were created by combining Praying Mantis boxing with other Wushu systems. Some writers count more than 40 Praying Mantis styles. This section will only comment on the more ancient and traditional ones.
Wang Lang, creator of Tanglangpai, was born in the Jimo district, in Shandong Province. He lived during the fall of the Ming dynasty and as he was a patriot, some masters say he was uncle of the last Ming emperor, he decided to excel in the martial arts to fight against the Qing dynasty's Manchurian rulers. He entered the Shaolin monastery in Songshang, but after being prosecuted by the Manchurians, he traveled throughout China, training in places where he could find gong-fu masters. In this way, he learned 17 Chinese boxing styles.
After this travel, Wang Lang entered the Laoshan monastery. Once there, he was always defeated by the abbot of the temple in spite of his deep knowledge of the fighting arts. One day, while he was meditating in a forest, he saw a fight between a Praying Mantis and a cicada. He was impressed by the aggressive attitude of the mantis and he began studying its movements. After a long learning time, he combined the Praying Mantis hand movements with the monkey steps he had learned, to enhance the coordination between hands and feet. With this new style, Wang Lang defeated the monastery abbot. Wang Lang kept modifying his system and, when he felt satisfied with his creation, he accepted some disciples.
Even though Praying Mantis sub-styles are quite different, they all contain the basic structure created by Wang Lang: 8 stances; 12 key words; 8 rigid and 12 flexible methods; 5 external and 5 internal elements; and 8 non-attacking and 8 attacking points.Northern Praying Mantis is a style characterized by fast hand movements. The hook hands are the trademark of the style and they are found in all the Northern sub-styles. Northern Tanglangquan's main weapon is the blinding speed of the hand that attempts to control and punch the opponent. It has a balanced combination of circular and straight movements.
Other important elements are the simultaneous block and punch, and strong chopping punches, which are practical movements for full contact or street fighting. Some Chinese martial artists say that seven star Praying Mantis boxing (one of the sub-styles) is the most aggressive style created in China. Grappling, kicking, nerve attack, and weapons are also part of the Northern branch.Southern Praying Mantis is very different. It is an infighting system that resembles Wing-chun. Qigong is very important in the Southern Praying Mantis. Movements are continuous and circular, and soft and hard, except when attacking, when the middle knuckle (phoenix eye) of the index finger is used like a needle to pierce the internal organs. The theory is that a punch with the fist produces an external muscular bruise, while striking with the phoenix eye produces an internal bruise.
The ancient Slavic martial traditions dates to the nomadic steppe-warriors of approximately 5,000 BC, passed from father to son in families for generations of pre-Soviet Russia, and then only among the elite combat specialist subdivisions (SPETSNAZ) of the former USSR. The art derives its name ROSS from "ROSSIYA" which is the Russian spelling for the word RUSSIA. ROSS, a Russian acronym standing for "Russian native martial art" was developed by Commander Alexander Retuinskih, President of the All-Russian Federation of Russian Martial Art (RFRMA), Chairman of the International Combat Sambo Commission, Chairman of the Russian Combat Sambo Committee, and Officer General of the Cossack Military. In 1991, the RFRMA was sanctioned by the Russian Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Russian Martial Art. ROSS is taught to trainers of Russian Spetsnaz units of the Ministries of Internal Affairs, Defense, and protective services, Russian Marine troops, VDV, OMON, and Minsk's "Alpha" units in Byelorussia, special MVD units "vityaz", frontier troops of Lithuania and many others.In ROSS, the main goal is to render the adversary harmless while minimizing losses for both self and foe and to work efficiently in any situation. While learning ROSS, students acquire great power as fighters, but more importantly as a human beings they increase their value for health and life, for both self and others. Both in combat and in life, students treat other creatures with awareness and compassion. When necessary, firm action is issued, but never in a callous or careless manner, and only when all other option have been considered. "Your life is not your alone; it belongs to your friends, family and community" (Alexander Ivanovich Retuinskih), or as is said in the Cossack Cadet Code "The life of your friend is always more valuable than your own. You can die yourself, but rescue your friend."ROSS undertakes training in 8 directions: Russian-style close-quarters combat and survival, renovated Sambo, executive and close protection training, bayonet fencing, advanced sports biomechanics, acrobatic dance, stunt and theatrical combat, Russian system of health and wellness, and Russian fisticuffs.Scott Sonnon, USA Sambo team coach and trainer and world Sambo vice-chairman, was the first foreigner accepted into this heritage in the attempt to bring the world together in fraternity. Sonnon imported the art to America in 1996 to improve the quality of life of his compatriots through the Russian health system, advanced sports biomechanics, and elite combative preparation.
Sado-mu-sool is an ancient Korean martial art that used stone weapons.
In Chinese, Sanshou (loose hands) refers to the free application of all the realistic hand-to-hand combat skills of kung-fu. It is divided into three categories: sport Sanshou (Chinese kickboxing), civilian Sanshou, and military Sanshou (AKA Qinna Gedou).
After fighting directly with the superior American forces during the Korean War, the Chinese government realized it needed a new way of fighting for its military forces. Army chief, Peng Dehuai, directed a great military training campaign (Da Be Wu) after the war. Martial arts masters from each of China's 92 provinces were brought together with medical experts to compare and evaluate their techniques. A new hand-to-hand combat system was developed based on three criteria: simplicity, directness, and effectiveness against a larger, stronger opponent. This system of fighting was thoroughly tested in training camps throughout China and in border conflicts with Soviet troops. The Chinese military published manuals on Sanshou in 1963 and 1972.Because of the increase of violent crimes in China, civilian Sanshou was created by the Chinese government so that Chinese civilians may learn self-defense skills. It is a complete system of striking and grappling, but without the lethal techniques required in the military. Along with military Sanshou, civilian Sanshou continued to be developed, but its development was by underground martial arts schools and individual martial artists in communist China. Civilian Sanshou warriors sharpened their skills by street championships where they challenged each other. These kinds of challenges were very popular during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) and usually were ended by the police.
In recent years, sport Sanshou has been developed and promoted by the Chinese government. In the early years (1980's), there were no formal championships for Sanshou, but there were demonstrations available on national television. Most Sanshou participants were military and policemen, so sport Sanshou kept its links with military kickboxing and wrestling. Lately, the Chinese government has promoted Sanshou into a nationwide sport and held formal national and international championships every year.
Sanshou as practiced by the Chinese military is based upon the Chinese Art of War, physics, anatomy, bio-mechanics, and human physiology. It is a complete system of realistic unarmed combat covering the skills of striking, grappling, wrestling, ground fighting, and weapon defenses taken from various Chinese and foreign martial arts and hand-to-hand combat styles. It focuses upon applying the principles of combat rather than upon techniques. The various divisions of the military and police forces have slight differences in technique, but they all employ the same principles.
Military and civilian Sanshou training involves many punching, kicking, grappling, wrestling, ground fighting, and weapon defense drills with a partner. Contact sparring with protective gear is also emphasized. This is where the different skills are blended together into one fluid art. There are no patterns or formal stances, and no qigong exercises.
The sport of Sanshou is rising in popularity all over the world. It is a kickboxing style that is fought on a platform called a "lei tai." Fighters wear boxing gloves, headgear, and body protectors. It is full-contact kicking and punching with throws and sweeps allowed. Knees, elbows, head butts, joint manipulation, and chokes are not allowed, but fighters may be thrown off the platform, a fighter is awarded 5 points for forcing an opponent off the platform.Sport Sanshou training is similar to kickboxing training, except that throws and sweeps are also drilled extensively. Physical conditioning is also important in sport full-contact fighting.
A modern Russian combat art that emphasizes throws, takedowns, and joint locks. It was first named "free-style wrestling", then "free wrestling," and in 1946 was renamed "SAMBO," as an acronym of Russian words "SAMozaschita Bez Orujiya" or "self-defense without weapon." It was created in the 1930's, with official recognition in 1938. Anatoly Kharlampfiev formed its ground rules although he saw SAMBOas a art of self-defense rather than the sport it became. Some claim it was heavily influenced by the Armenian art of khok; others say it is derived from indigenous folk wrestling and Judo.SAMBO is compilation of techniques from a number of martial arts including Japanese and Chinese martial arts, national martial arts of USSR area natives (Georgians, Armenians, Mongols, Russians etc.), French wrestling, and other arts. At the time of the World War II, the system was widely "tested" by the Soviet army. "Special" techniques were added at the time, for example fighting in cells, quick-and-quiet sentry killing, etc. Because of the number of criminals in the Soviet army at that time (during WWII each prisoner was "invited" to the front with each year at the front worth two or so years of their sentence) SAMBO experts acquired many lessons on criminal Street fighting, and a number of these techniques were included in SAMBO. SAMBO continues to accept new techniques and modify old ones.
Three variations of the art are currently taught: sport SAMBO , which includes mostly grappling techniques; SAMBO for self-defense, and combat SAMBO , which encompasses grappling and striking. Practitioners wear a unique uniform "kurtka", which is used for grabbing and throwing.The sport variation is similar to Judo but with some differences in allowed techniques. SAMBO allows leg locks while Judo does not, but Judo allows choking while SAMBO does not. There are also more techniques in SAMBO than in Judo.The self-defense variation is similar in form to Aiki-jujutsu because it is intended to be entirely defensive. There are many specific techniques for defending specific attacks, including escaping from grips and chokes, defenses against punches and kicks, defenses against weapons (knife, stick etc.), and ground fighting. The self-defense part of SAMBO is based on body movements and locks, with a few punches and kicks. The object is to allow defense but not to injure the opponent more than necessary because this variation was created for citizens. In the former Soviet Union, the law was that if you injure your opponent more than needed in a self-defense situation, you could receive a 5 year prison term. Some of the self-defense techniques are based on sport SAMBO.
The combat variation was created for the army and police. It is a very severe and dangerous system. It includes sport and self-defense techniques, but uses them in different ways. For example, sport SAMBO uses the traditional shoulder throw of Judo and Jujutsu. In combat SAMBO the throw is done with the opponent's arm rotated up and locked at the elbow, and may be done to throw the opponent on his or her head. If the opponent attempts to counter by lowering his or her center of gravity and pulling backwards (as is taught in sport SAMBO) the arm will be broken. Combat SAMBO teaches shoulder throw counters that might be able to deal with a locked arm, such as kicking out the opponents knee and pulling back by the hair or eye sockets. In addition to modified sport and self-defense techniques, combat SAMBO includes kicks, punches, "dangerous throwing" (throws that cannot be include into sportive part because they cause injury), locks on the spine, things that are prohibited in sport wrestling (biting, for example), many "sadistic dirty things," working against weapons (with or without a weapon of your own), tricks like putting your coat on your opponents head, floor fighting, fighting in closed space (small room, pit, or stairs), quick-and-quiet sentry killing, etc. Students also learn strategy and tactics of fighting alone or in groups against single or multiple opponents. SAMBO is less popular today in Russia because the influx of oriental martial arts in recent years. However, the development of SAMBO has continued and elements of it are incorporated into other modern combat systems.
Sarit-sarak is an art of bare handed combat emphasizing evasive skills and offensive attack. According to its lore, the Dragon God, Lainingthou Pakhangba, ordered King Mungyamba to kill the demon Moydana of Khagi and taught him the ways of combat and presented him with a special spear and sword for this purpose. A local Indian dance known as the "manipuri" also finds its origins with this martial practice.
Savate (sometimes called Boxe Francais) (France)
Savate is a martial art of foot and fist fighting that was developed in the 1800's. It may have been influenced by venous Asian martial arts after French sailors returned from voyages to Asian ports. The art began spreading to other countries in the 1960s. It encompasses kicking techniques somewhat similar to Taekwondo, punching techniques from Western boxing, and stick fighting techniques based on French rapier fighting. It is renowned for its precision kicks to the body's vital points. Kicks were designed to integrate smoothly with punches. "La canne," a mostly defensive art using wooden sticks, is usually taught along with Savate. Three types of savate are taught: assault, technical fighting, the opponent must not be hit; combat technique, fighting using semi-contact: and combat total, full-contact fighting. Savate is currently a popular full-contact ring sport in Europe.
Shogerijutsu is compound word. "Sho," meaning essence, is combined with "geri," implying any leg strike, and with the traditional term, "Jujitsu." "Naibu," meaning internal, and "karate," meaning empty hand, and "do," meaning way, are also used to help give a general understanding the purpose of Shogerijutsu-naibu. Shogerijutsu students first learn the basics, and then they develop their own training regime with the goal of becoming a complete, dynamic martial artist. Students combines both the fighting (internal and external) and healing arts into their regime.Shogerijutsu adopts the basic self-defense techniques of Jujutsu, Karate-do, kung-fu, Taijiquan, Baguazhang, Muay-tai, boxing, and Qigong into a self-defense and combat fighting approach shared by all the styles. Jujitsu does not attempt to neutralize power with power, instead, it absorbs the force of an attack using light, quick parries, and centerline theory, and redirects the force of the attack to the attacker's detriment. The principles of Jujitsu are similar to those of the traditional Chinese art of Taijiquan, so many Shogerijutsu techniques are adapted from these two martial arts. Shogerijutsu has a more internal approach to training than does traditional, external karate training.
Basic training focues on the combative principles of moving in (never backwards), evasive striking (instead of blocking and then striking), various striking and throwing techniques, and the study of qi (chi). Advanced principles include chi kung (from Qigong), push hands (from Tuishou), yang chengfu taijiquan concepts, Japanese strikes, Jujutsu techniques, qi flow, qi transference, Taijiquan, Hua-quan (chinese "cotton" boxing), and joint locks. Hsing-I would be the closest style to the principles being taught. Proper body mechanics, both external and internal, along with using blocks as strikes, pressure point striking, evasive maneuvering, using knees, palm, and elbow strikes, and with parrying (deflecting) techniques, add to the uniqueness of Shogerijutsu. Shogerijutsu's p
Shaolin Kempo (United States)
A modern American Kempo self-defense style that combines karate, kung-Fu, and Jujitsu. It uses the linear hard movements of Kempo karate, the circular soft movements of Shaolin kung-fu , along with its 5 animals (tiger, leopard, dragon, snake, and crane), and the grapples, throws, and locks of Juijitsu.
Shohei-Ryu (formally known as Uechi-Ryu) (Okinawa)
A traditional Okinawan, Zen based style founded by Kanbum Uechi. Although it has become one of the main Okinawan martial arts and absorbed many of the traditional Okinawan karate training methods and approaches, it is historically, and to some extent technically, quite separate.The name Shohei-ryu comes from two Chinese characters, "sho" meaning “to shine brightly” and "hei" meaning “fairness”, “equality” and “peace”. The name also refers to two Japanese eras, a past one, showa, and the present one, heisei. Ryu (pronounced “roo”) is the Japanese word for “style” or “path.”Grandmaster Kanbun Uechi was born on May 5, 1877 in Isumi, a small village in northern Okinawa. In 1897, at the age of 20, he fled to Fuzhou, the capital city of Fujian province in China, to avoid being drafted into the Japanese army, which was occupying Okinawa at the time. For ten years, he studied the art of Pangai-noon, meaning half-hard half-soft, under master Shushiwa, a Buddhist priest who had received his training in the Shoalin Temple in Southern China. Pangai-noon was derived from the interwoven movements of the tiger, crane, and dragon and it concentrates on the use of the single-knuckle punch, spear-hand strike, pointed kick, and circular block. Uechi opened his own school in Nanchon, a city in Fukien Province, where he taught for three years, having the distinction of being the only Okinawan ever accepted in China as a teacher. Disheartened after one of his students became involved in a dispute and killed another person, Uechi vowed never to teach again, and, in 1910, he closed his school and returned Okinawa where he married and, on June 26, 1911, his son Kanei was born. Uechi still refused to teach his art and only once during the ensuing years did he reluctantly demonstrate his kata.
Absorbing some Okinawan Goju-ryu over the decades, Shohei-ryu still retains its original Chinese flavor, both in its technique and in the culture of the dojo. It is a "half-hard, half-soft" style very similar to such southern Chinese styles as Fukienese Crane (as still practiced in the Chinese communities of Malaysia), Taiwanese Golden Eagle, and even Wing-chun. Conditioning the body for both attack and defense is a common characteristic of both Okinawan karate and southern Shoalin "street" styles, and as such is an important part of Shohei-ryu training. There is a strong internal component to the practice, including focused breathing and tensioning exercises similar to Chinese Qigong. Shohei-ryu, following its Chinese Crane heritage, emphasizes circular blocks, low snap kicks, infighting (coordinating footwork with grabs, locks, throws, and sweeps), and short, rapid hand traps and attacks (not unlike Wing-chun). The style incorporates the characteristics of the wushu animals. It uses circular motions and uses the phoenix eye single knuckle punch. Unlike most karate styles, it uses grappling techniques.Shorei-Ryu is known for its heavy, powerful techniques, body toughening training, and its numerous stances. It is more suitable for a person of heavy body structure. It strives to emulate the actions of the 5 traditional animals and teaches all the traditional Okinawan weapons, such as the bo, tonfa, and sai. Some characteristics of Shorei-ryu are:Stances: exceptionally low in kata form.Seiken thrust: is slightly downward and in center of body. The rear leg moves slightly forward at the completion of the punch. The moving of the rear leg is automatic and is caused by the power generated by the force of the punch and the forward movement of the hips.Fist: index finger under curled thumb.Hips: rotate with a definite forward movement.Blocks: all start spiraling at wrists and spiral until completion of block.Head snap when turning.
Shoot Fighting (Japan)
Shoot fighting is a modern Japanese eclectic martial sport. Its techniques were greatly influenced by the submission grappling skills taught by the legendary American wrestler Karl Gotch when he visited Japan. A shoot is a fighting contest between two opponents. Variations include shoot wrestling, shoot boxing, and Pancrase. All are taught primarily as ring sports, and their matches frequently draw large crowds in Japan. Rules permit kicks, hand strikes, takedowns, throws, and ground grappling.
Shorinji Kempo (Japan)
Shorinji Kempo is a Japanese karate style that is deeply rooted in Zen meditation. It was created by So Doshin who says it is based on traditional Shaolin teachings. In the 1970's, the Japanese courts forced So Doshin to change the name of his school to Nippon Shorinji Kempo. It stresses being calm in action. Students first learn its deep spirituality, and then they learn the fighting techniques. Because of its combination of Buddhism, philosophy, and martial arts, many consider Shorinji Kempo a religious sect.
An Okinawan style of Shaolin Karate. Shaolin influence is apparent in the fluidity of the circular attacks, and the karate influence is apparent in the powerful rigid strikes.
Shorin-ryu is an Okinawan soft style. It is known for its light, quick, and agile techniques that are suitable for a person of light body structure. Because of its strict spiritual aspects, it is considered a religious sect.
Shotokan is the "authorized" Japanese style of karate. It is an Okinawan style founded by Gichin Funakoshi. Shoto was the pen name of Funakoshi. He combined shorin and shorei to a style that would accommodate all body structures. According to Funakoshi "The art of karate strives neither for victory, nor for defeat, but for the perfection of the character of its practitioners. Shotokan is a "hard" linear style that is a true "empty hand" art; it does not include weapons training. Although originally known for its lethal attacks, dynamic entry techniques, and its theory of "one strike, one kill," similar to other martial arts, it has evolved into a sport. Shotokan training emphasizes mastering a few techniques rather than learning many techniques.Shotokai and Shotokan are two names for the same thing. Shotokai is the name of the Organization established in 1935 to raise funds for the building of Funakoshi's main training hall. Gichin Funakoshi held only two positions during his lifetime: one as head instructor of the Shotokan Dojo and the other as director of the Shotokai school.Shotokan is the name of the building finished in 1936 that was the result of the work done by this organization. In time, people who trained in karate were not only known for practicing karate but also began to be related to different "styles," even though Gichin Funakoshi was against this. His students began to be known as of the "Shotokan," the place where they trained, or "Shotokan -ryu", the Shotokan style.
After Master Gichin Funakoshi's death in 1957, Shotokai was heir of his symbol (O-sensei's tiger), the Shotokan and Shotokai names, and more importantly, all his documents and writings, which is why Shotokai is in charge of editing and publishing his works. Shotokai's headquarters in Japan is still the Shotokan dojo, although it has been reconstructed since the original one burned during a World War II bombing. The Shotokan name has been misused by many groups with no respect for Master Funakoshi or his families' wishes. For this reason, many uninformed people relate Gichin Funakoshi with sport karate, something he was strongly against.
Shuai Jiao (China)
Shuai jiao is known as China's wrestling and throwing art. It is a Northern Chinese martial art that was not well known in the south until the 1930's. It may be one of the oldest martial art styles in existence. Shuiajiao emerged around 2,000 years ago and it was originally taught only to the military elite. Starting in the Qin dynasty, Shuaijiao was demonstrated in tournaments for the Imperial court. During the Qing dynasty, China maintained a camp of 300 full-time fighters who trained for competition with China's allies. Today, Shuaijiao is still taught primarily to the military and police in China and Taiwan.Modern shuiajiao was popularized by Chang Dungsheng, a Chinese master who fought many challenge matches in China before relocating to Taiwan to teach at the Central Police Academy. Shuaijiao was introduced to the United States in 1978 by Dr. Chi-Hsiu Daniel Weng, a master who studied Shuaijiao for 20 years from Grandmaster Chang Dongsheng. Shuaijiao popularity has grown during the past several years. Major Chinese martial arts tournaments now include Shuaijiao divisions. Shuaijiao fighters have also competed successfully in Sanshou (full-contact fighting) competition.Shuaijiao integrates striking, kicking, throwing, tripping, grappling, joint locking, and escaping methods. Shuaijiao fighting principles are based on Taijiquan, but its techniques are applied with more force. It uses hand and foot strikes to soften up an opponent for a bone breaking throw. Unlike Judo, where break falls are used to lessen the impact of a throw, Shuiajiao teaches students to lock their limbs to intensify the impact. There are 30 theoretical principles of Shuaijiao; the six major principles are absorbing, mixing, squatting, hopping, turning, and encircling.
Shuaijiao fighting strategy emphasizes maintaining balance and controlling the opponent. Tactics emphasize throwing the opponent while maintaining a joint lock, and then following with a vital point strike. There are 36 major throws in the system, with 3600 combinations. Shuaijiao is notable for joint attacks and hard throws. Shuaijiao styles are categorized by region. The four major regional styles are Mongolian, Beijing, Tianjin, and Baoding. The Baoding style is taught in the United States.Competition is similar to actual combat, except that strikes and kicks are allowed only in conjunction with a throw and joint attacks are discouraged. A win is three falls, with points awarded upon completion of the throw when control is maintained over opponent. There are no pinning or submission holds, since, in actual combat, the throw would be followed by a finishing strike.
There are a dozen stationary training stances to train strength and flexibility. Twenty moving patterns train the position and footwork used in approaching, joint locking, and throwing. Wushu type high kicking exercises train leg strength and flexibility. The kicks most often used in Shuaijiao fighting are low kicks and sweeps. Unique to Shuaijiao is "belt cracking,, which uses the uses the uniform belt in exercises that train strength and proper position. Throws are practiced in drills and in sparring with a partner. Sparring is practiced at all levels, as soon as the student has mastered break falls.
A term used to refer to Chinese Ch'uan-fa systems (Kempo in Japanese), meaning to "beat by hand." Another term with the same meaning is hakuda.
The art of staff fighting has a long history in India. In the Vedic age, young men were routinely trained to defend themselves with staffs, and experts in their use were known to give them names, perhaps in much the same fashion that Samurai named their katana (swords). The long staff was already highly organized as both a method of self-defense and competitive sport in the State of Tamil as early as the 1st century A.D., and accounts in the 2nd century, such as Silapathiharam Tamil literature, abound with tales of the sale of Silambam staffs, swords, and armor to foreigners. Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians, as well as the Dravidian kings (kingdoms in southern India and Northern Ceylon that shared a common family of languages) frequented the Madurai trading center where the Silambam staff was considered a commodity. It is believed that the Silambum staff of Tamil was transported to Malaysia where its practice as a self-defense form flourished. The Silambam staff two-hand technique makes use of swift and agile footwork allowing precision and momentum to be channeled into thrusting, cutting, and sweeping strokes. The Silambam student develops defensive skills by learning to deflect stones thrown by groups of fellow practitioners with techniques called such things as the monkey strike, and the hawk strike, and the snake strike. Competitors in Silambam matches use staffs, the ends of which have been dipped in powder, to attempt to touch each other, with one point being awarded for touching below the waist and two for above. Three unanswered touches or a single touch to the forehead means victory, and the competitor who fails to maintain control of his staff also loses. Matches take place on firm ground in a circular twenty to twenty-five foot area. Matches have a predetermined time period.
An Indonesian and Malaysian set of martial art, dating to the 6th Century although probably not refined as a true martial art until the 14th Century. It has different styles and schools (over 400), but all the styles integrate weapons into their training. The generic name "silat" is used throughout much of Southeast Asia; in Malaysia it is known as Bersilat. Dutch-Indonesian Silat is typically Pentjak-silat and "pure" Indonesian styles Pencak-silat. Since silat is an umbrella term covering many styles, it is not possible to give a single history. Some of the arts are very old and some were developed less than 50 years ago. The history of silat is unclear, it is a mixture of indigenous techniques along with techniques borrowed from Chinese arts and Indian arts such as Kalaripayit.
Pencak-silat depends heavily on an indigenous weapons and animal-styles heritage. In the distant past, it was predominately a weapons system; empty hand techniques are derived from the weapons forms. It is still often said that there is no silat without the knife.
Silat emphasizes joint locks, sweeps, takedowns, and hand and foot strikes from unexpected angles and directions that are aimed at the body's weakest points. Instruction often involves the performance of traditional Indonesian dances. Most of the styles are indigenous, although some integrate Japanese and Chinese techniques and principles.
Techniques are quite varied, although kicks are not emphasized much. Foot work is sophisticated and the development of stability is of major importance. The foot and and hand techniques are so subtle and intricate that they are often taught separately, and then integrated after the student has mastered them individually. There is a good balance between offensive and defensive techniques.Different styles of silat use different terminology to describe a practitioner's ability: "guru" is frequently used to refer to a proficient instructor, "kang" for senior students, and "pendekar" someone who has developed a high level of skill and possibly spiritual development. However, the usage varies from style to style, and possibly even from school to school.
Some variations include: Mande-muda, Serak (also spelled Sera and Serah), Cimande (Tjimande), Cikalong (Tjikalong), Harimau, Mustika-kwitang, Gerakan-suci, and Perisai-diri.Sillum (China)An alternative pronunciation of Shaolin.
Ssireum is a form of Korean wrestling that is one of the most popular spectator sports in Korea. It has developed into a major national sport for physical competition and entertainment. According to the literature, the contest of Ssireum was called various other names such as Gakjo, Gakhi, Sangbak, and Gakgi. The name Ssireum has been universally used since 1920. In Ssireum, two contestants wrestle and, if any part of a contestant's body above the knee touches the ground, the contestant loses the bout. Ssireum is practiced by grasping a strap that is tied around the waist and thigh. It requires considerable muscular strength and muscular endurance.
A sub-specialty of horsemanship (Ba-jutsu) that specialized in horse techniques used in crossing streams, ponds, and bodies of water.
The original combat discipline from which Sumo developed.Sumo (Japan)Sumo is a Japanese combative sport that pits one huge, loin cloth clad, contestant against another in a sand covered ring. The men push and shove each other while attempting to execute a trip or throw. There are no weight classes. The object of the match is to force the opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than his feet. Before a contest, referees consecrate the ring and there is much ritual before and after each match.Experts claim sumo is derived from a more martially oriented art, but in its current form, it is purely a martial sport with little or no self-defense utility. It is perhaps the most popular spectator sport in Japan.Sumo was originally a Shinto divination rite and it is still performed as a religious rite during festivals where it is called Shinji-zumo "god-service Sumo." An ancient Japanese proverb says a crying child will thrive, so in children's contests the first child to cry—wins.
Taekwondo is the most popular of the Korean martial arts. It is discussed in detail throughout TKDTutor.
Means "body art" A system similar to Jujitsu that included vital point striking arts (atemi) and a variety of hand held weapons, such as the bankokuchoko, which was a metal ring similar to brass knuckles used in the West. It was a specialty of a number of Jujitsu systems, namely Nagao-ryu and Kito-ryu.
Taijiquan (Tai-chi-chaun) (China)
Taijiquan "ultimate or body energy fist" is perhaps the best known of the three internal Chinese styles. The term "Ttaiji" literally means "ultimate" and refers to the ancient Chinese cosmological concept of the interplay between two opposite, yet complementary, forces (yin and yang) as being the foundation of creation. "Quan" literally means "fist" and denotes an unarmed method of combat. Taijiquan as a martial art is based on the principle of the soft overcoming the hard. It is commonly just called Tai-chi.Tai-chi is a combination of traditional Chinese external styles and Taoist principles.
Tang-soo-do "art of the knife hand" is a traditional Korean martial art that focuses on discipline and the practice of patterns and self-defense sequences. Although founder Hwang Kee claims to have created the art from ancient textbooks on Subak (an older Korean martial art) while he was living in Manchuria in the 1930s, the style may have been heavily influenced by Japanese karate and Chinese internal methods. In many respects, Tang-soo-do appears similar to karate and Taekwondo, except it places very little emphasis on sporting competition and flashy maneuvers.
T'ang Su (Korea)
It means "Tang Hand" and is an ancient (extinct) Korean martial art which came from China.
Thang-ta refers to the art of using the sword or spear against one or more opponents. This particular martial school of weaponry is related directly to Tantric practices and is practiced in three distinct ways. The first is completely ritual in nature; the second is comprised of a series of sword and spear dances, and the third is actual combat. This art is reputed to share a common origin with Sarit-Sarak.
This remnant of martial culture is popular in the districts of Shimla, Sirmaur, and Solan. Probably best described as a group demonstration sport, Thoda is the art of archery. It takes its name from the circular wooden ball used to replace the deadly arrowhead. Bows ranging in size from three and a half to six feet are used in its practice. The archers divide themselves into groups called the "saathis" and the "pashi," who are reputed to represent the descendants of the Pandavas and the Kauravas who in the days of the Mahabharata frequently battled in the Valleys of Kulu and Manali. Competition takes place yearly on Baisakhi Day (April 13th and 14t, which honors the Goddesses Durga and Mashoo). The event takes place on a marked fairground as both groups face each other at a distance of approximately ten yards. Each group in turn fires its arrows, targeting the opponents' leg area beneath the knee. Points are detracted for hits to other areas. The defenders may dance about, side step and kick their legs in an effort to foil accurate aim. All the while, observers cheer from the sidelines while participating teams sing and play martial music.
"Diamond fist boxing" is a form of pugilism was reputedly developed by the Brahmin Caste of Western India around the 9th or 10th century. Blows where permitted to the face and chest only, and were delivered through the use of a single set of metal knuckles worn on one hand. The knuckles generally bore the pronged pyramid design, hence the name "diamond fist boxing." It is needless to say that serious injuries and deaths contributed to the decline in popularity of its practice. The art reputedly still has a small but loyal following who hold yearly bouts in the Gujurat region of India.
Hironori Otsuka, founder of Wado Ryu Karate, was born in 1892 in Shimodate City, Ibaraji, Japan. His mother's uncle, Chojiro Ebashi, was a samurai warrior who kept young Otsuka spellbound with his true tales of exciting samurai adventures. At six years old, Hironori began practicing Shindo Yoshin Ryu Jiujitsu under the tutelage of his father. Whereas most Jiujitsu styles specialized in throwing and ground techniques, Shindo Yoshin Ryu Jiujitsu stressed striking and kicking. As a teenager, Otsuka began studying Shindo Yoshin Ryu Jiujitsu under Tatsusaburo Nakayama, who was also a skilled Kendo instructor. Otsuka also trained in Kempo and in other Jujitsu styles.In 1922, while the 30-year-old Otsuka was working as a bank clerk, he saw a newspaper article on Crown Prince Hirohito’s visit to Okinawa, where he had been entertained with a demonstration of Shuri-te style Tode (not yet known as Karate). The article mentioned that an Okinawan named Gichin Funakoshi had arrived in Japan and was planning to teach the martial art in Tokyo. Otsuka promptly went to Tokyo and began intensive training in karate under Funakoshi.
White Eyebrow (China)
This is a medium range defensive fighting system. The White Eyebrow practitioner will wait for the opponent to strike first and then retaliate using relaxed arms (until impact) and waist rotation for power. There are five external forms (eyes, mind, hands, waist, and stance) and five internal forms (spirit, purpose, courage, power [chi], and power [ging]). The only fist used is a phoenix eye strike.
Wing-chun was an obscure and little known art until the mid twentieth century. Thanks to the late Bruce Lee, it is one of the most popular external Chinese styles. Lee's first formal training came in Wing-chun in Hong Kong, under the late master, Yip Man. It is the only kung-fu style created by a woman, founded over 260 years ago by a Buddhist nun named Ng Mui.About 260 years ago, the Southern Shaolin Temple was sanctuary to the Chinese revolution that was trying to overthrow the ruling Manchu. A classical martial arts system was taught in the temple that took 15-20 years to produce an efficient fighter. Realizing they needed to produce efficient fighters at a faster pace, five of China's grandmasters met to discuss the merits of each of the various forms of kung-fu. They chose the most efficient techniques, theories, and principles from the various styles and developed a training program that would produce an efficient fighter in 5-7 years.
Before the program was put into practice, the Southern temple was raided and destroyed. A lone nun, Ng Mui, was the only survivor who knew the full system. She wandered the countryside, finally taking in a young orphan girl and training her in the system. She named the girl Yimm Wing-chun (which has been translated to mean beautiful springtime, or hope for the future), and the two women set out refining the system.The system was passed down through the years, and eventually became known as Wing-chun, in honor of the founder. The veil of secrecy around the art was finally broken in the early 1950's when Grandmaster Yip Man began teaching publicly in Hong Kong, and his students began gaining notoriety for besting many systems and experienced opponents in street fights and "friendly" competitions.
Compared to other traditional Chinese combat systems, Wing-chun may be learned relatively quickly. The way the art produces efficient and adaptable fighters in a relatively short time is by sticking to several core principles and constantly drilling them into the student, as well as taking a very generic approach to techniques. Instead of training a response to a specific technique, the student practices guarding various zones about the body and dealing generically with whatever happens to be in that zone. This allows for a minimum of technique for a maxThe "mother line" is an imaginary pole running vertically through the center of your body. From it emanates the "center line,” a vertical three dimension grid that divides the body into a right and left half. Most of the vital points of the body are along the centerline, and it is this area that Wing-chun students learn to protect as well as work off of while using their own offensive techniques. Also emanating from the mother line is the central line. It is seen as the shortest path between you and your opponent, which is generally where most of the exchange is going to take place. Because of this linear concept, most of the techniques seek to occupy one of the two lines and usually take on a linear nature.
Only two weapons are taught in the system (only to advanced students), the dragon pole and the butterfly swords.Much training time is spent cultivating "contact reflexes." The idea is that at the moment you touch your opponent, your body automatically reads the direction, force, and often intent of the part of the opponent's body you are contacting, and subconsciously deals with it. This leads to the generic concept of zoning.Contact reflexes and the concept of not using force against force are cultivated through unique two-man sensitivity drills called chi sao. The concepts of guarding and working off of these lines and zones are learned through the practice of the three patterns Wing-chun students learn, which contain the basic techniques of the system; Shil-lum-tao, Chum-kil, and Bil-jee.
Another unique aspect of the system is the use of the mook jong, or wooden dummy, a wood log on a frame that has three "arms" and a "leg" to simulate various possible positions of an opponent's limbs. A wooden dummy pattern is taught that consists of 108 movements. The pattern is meant to introduce students to various applications of the system. It also serves to help students perfect their own skills.Weapons training drills use the same generic ideas and concepts as the open hand system (including the use of contact reflexes). Many of the weapon movements are built off of, or mimic, the open hand moves, which is the reverse process of Kali/Escrima/Arnis, where weapon movements come first, and then open hand movements mimic them.
Wrestling is a combative sport that probably originated in ancient Greece and Rome. It is practiced in various forms in most cultures of the world (Sumo in Japan, Ssirum in Korea, Khok in Armenia, Sambo in Russia, etc.). It formed the basis for the Japanese martial sport of Shoot-fighting, and many of its techniques are similar to those of Judo.
Wushu means "martial skill." In the West, it is the term used to identify the modern Chinese martial art that emphasizes flashy techniques and acrobatics. In China, it is the official term used to refer to what Westerners call kung-fu or chuan-fat. Training includes numerous empty hand techniques and practically every imaginable weapon. Patterns are performed solo or with a partner.Wing-chun is an explosive linear art that uses low kicks and fast hand techniques, and teaches the concept of simultaneous attack and defense. It specializes in in-fighting using close multiple short attacks using the body to project power. Often users grab or pin an opponent's limb with one hand while attacking with the rest of the body.The primary principle is not to use force against force, which allows a weak fighter to overcome stronger opponents. Generally, a Wing-chun practitioner will seek to use the opponent's own force against him. A great deal of training is put in to this area, and is done with the cultivation of concepts called contact reflexes and economy of motion.Wing-chun is often referred to as "the thinking man's art" because of its scientific approach to training. It uses "feminine qualities" such as softness, passivity, and sensitivity. It teaches that force should not be met with force. Redirection also plays an important role in the art's defensive moves, as does protecting the body's centerline.
Xingyiquan (Hsing-yi-chaun) (China)
Xingyiquan is one of the three orthodox "internal" styles of Chinese martial arts (the other two being Taijiquan and Baguazhang). "Xing" refers to form and "yi" to the mind or intent. "Quan" literally means fist and denotes a method of unarmed combat. Xingyiquan is commonly referred to as "form and mind" or "form and will" boxing. The name illustrates the strong emphasis placed on motion being subordinate to mental control.The exact origins of Xingyiquan are unknown. The creation of the Art is traditionally attributed to the famous general and patriot Yue Fei (1103-1141) of the Song dynasty. However, no historical data supports this claim. The style was originally called "Xin-yi-liu-he-quan" (heat mind six harmonies boxing). The six harmonies refer to the three internal harmonies (the heart or desire coordinates with the intent; the intent coordinates with the qi or vital energy; and the qi coordinates with the strength), and the three external harmonies (the shoulders coordinate with the hips; the elbows coordinate with the knees, and the hands coordinate with the feet).
Yoseikan Budo "the house in which is taught with courage and honesty the way of the warrior" was founded in the early 1960's by Hiroo Mochizuki. It has spread throughout Europe, Africa, and the United States.Mochizuki realized that most basic techniques are based on a wavy movement beginning in the hip, which produces much more power than when movement is limited to only extremities. These basic elements are taught and applied to all Yoseikan Budo techniques. Yoseikan Budo consists of modified techniques of karate, Judo/Jujutsu, and Aikido. Use of classical weapons, such as bokken, tanto, bo, nunchaku, etc. is taught as well as traditional and new patterns. Beginners usually study basic techniques for about a year and then more Aikido techniques and the use of weapons are taught.
Korean Judo, a copy of Japanese Judo that has evolved into a Korean system.
Yu-sol is a soft Korean style that emphasizes non-resistance. Practitioners wait for opponent to make the first move and then counter-attack. Although popular for many centuries, it is now rarely practiced.